Notes for unit 11

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Who talked about the psychodynamic approach?
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson
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Sigmund Freud developed a theory in which...
the human mind emphasised the intercation of biological drives and social environment.
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Freuds theory emphasised the power of...
early experiences to influence adult personality.
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Freud believed that that people were born with...
a dynamic 'life energy' or 'libido' which initially motivates a baby to feed and grow and later motivates sexual reproduction.
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Freud believes that people are born with...
biological instints.
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Freud developed 5 psychosexual approaches. These are...
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
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Explain the Oral stage.
drive enrgy motivates the infant to feed, and activities involving the lips, sucking and biting creating pleasure for the baby. weaning represents a difficult stage which may influence the future personality of the child.
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What are some of the characteristics related to the Oral stage?
Passive, dependant on others, gullible. attracted to oral pleasures such as smoking, eating or drinking.
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Explain the Anal stage?
young children are required to learn to control their muscles and, in particular the anal muscles. toilet training represents the first time that a child has to control their own body to meet the demands of society.
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What are some of the characteristics related to the Anal stage?
anal retentive, hoarder, mean with money, unable to let go or stubborn. the opposite of this can be; generous, open, extremely untidy.
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Explain the Phallic stage?
this is the stage in which Freud stated that children had sexual feelings towards their parents. he believed that girls were attracted to their fathers, and boys their mothers.
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what are the attractions in the Phallic stage called?
the Electra and Oedipus complexes.
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what are some of the characteristics related to the Phallic stage?
vanity, self-love, reckless, obsession with sexual activity or the opposite could be timid especially to sexual activity.
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Explain the Latency stage?
after the age of 5 or 6, most children have resolved the Electra and Oedipus. however, children are not yet biologically ready to reprocude so their sexuality is latent or waiting to express itself.
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Exlain the Genital stage?
with the onset of puberty, adolescents become fully sexual and 'life drive' is focused on sexual activity.
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What are Freuds 3 mental mechanisms?
id, ego and superego.
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What is the Id?
the id makes all of the 'I want' demands and opertates on the pleasure principle.
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What is the Ego?
this develops when the child starts to take control of their body, it involves all of the things the child has learning about how to act in an appropriate way.
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What is the Superego?
this represents the demans made by society about how we should behave. it acts as our conscience.
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what is regression?
this takes place when individuals experience extreme emotional stress and is hard for the ego to maintain 'normal' age-appropriate behaviour. for example, if a teenager becomes stressed due to exams, they may just want to cuddle with the mothers.
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What are defence mechanisms?
this is where the ego is responsible for maintaining an individuals well health. it is responsible for supporting the individual during pressure.
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What is Denial?
blocking threatening information or thoughts from awareness.
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What is Repression?
forcing memories from consciousness into the unconscious mind. repression is a kind of motivated forgetting or unpleasent thoughts or memories.
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What is rationalisation?
reinterpretating events or memories to make the safer for the ego.
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What is displacement?
finding a different outlet for feelings, such as, transferring anger towards a parent to an 'out-group'.
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What is projection?
projecting forbidden emotions onto others i.e. what we see in others, we see in ourselves.
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What is sublimation?
a change of state in the way mental energy is directed, e.g. sexual drive is directed away from partners and into activities such as collecting things.
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What is reaction formation?
changing an emotion into its overemphasised opposite, e.g. changing love to hatred or hatred into aggressively expressed praise.
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What was Erik Eriksons theory based on?
Freuds psychodynamic approaches.
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How is Eriksons theory different to Freuds?
Freud believed that individuals only developed through 5 stages, however, Erikson believes that individuals continue developing throughout their lives.
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Erikson originally stated that there were...
eight periods of developmental crisis an individual would pass through.
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Erikson believed that his theory would apply to people of all cultures because...
he believed that individuals were 'psychosexual' in origin rather than linked to issues of lifestyle or culture.
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what are Eriksons 8 developmental stages?
basic trust vs mistrust, self-control vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, competance vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, ego-integrity vs despair.
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Explain Basic trust vs Mistrust.
this stage takes place from birth to 18 months. This is when infants have to learn a sense of basic trust or learn to mistrust the world.
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Basic trust vs mistrust continued...
if children recieve good quality care this may help them to develop personalities which include a sense of hope and safety. if not, they may develop a personality dominated by a sense of insecurity and anxiety.
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Explain Self-control vs Shame and doubt.
From 18 months to 3 years. Children have to develop a sense of self-control or a sense of shame and doubt may predominate. they may develop a sense of willpower and control over their own bodies.
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Self- control vs Shame and doubt continued...
if this sense of self-control does not develop, then children may feel that they cannot control events.
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Explain Initiatve vs Guilt.
from 3-7. children develop a sense of initiative which will provide a sense of purpose in life. a sense of guilt may otherwise dominate the individuals personality and lead to a lack of self worth.
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Explain Competence vs Inferiority.
perhaps 6-15. the individual has to develop a sense of competance or risk the personality being dominated by feelings of inferiority and failure.
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Explain Identity vs Role confusion.
perhaps 13 to 21 years. Adolescents or young adults need to develop a sense of personal identity or risk a sense of role confusion, with fragmented or unclear sense of self.
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Explain Intimacy vs Isolation.
perhaps 18 to 30. young adults have to develop a capability for intimacy, love and the ability to share and commit their feelings to others.
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Intimcay vs Isolation continued...
the alternative personality outcome is isolation and an inability to make close, meaningful friendships.
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Explain Generativity vs Stagnation.
perhaps 30's to 60/70's. mature adults have to develop a sense of being generative, leading to concern for others and for the future well being of others. the alternative is to become inward-looking and self-indulgent.
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Explain Ego-integrity vs Despair.
later life. older adults have to develop a sense of wholeness or intgrity within their understanding of themselves. this might lead to a sense of meaning to life or even to what could be called 'wisdom'. the alternative is a lack of meaning in life.
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What is the Biological perspective?
This is where individuals believe that human behaviour is influenced by brain and body chemistry. pychologists use this theory to research and analyse biological differences within people.
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What is Eysenck's theory?
Eysenck's theory of personality involves three central traits which describe human personalities.
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What are his three central traits?
introversion/extroversion, stability/instability, tough minded/tender minded.
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Explain Introversion/Extroversion.
An individual might be either hungry for experience and excitement, in which case they be an extrovert; or eager to avoid excitement, in which case they will be an introvert. most people are some place between these extremes.
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Explain Stability/Instability.
Stability means calm, confident and perhaps carefree approach for life. Instability means a moody, changeable and restless response to life events.
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Explain Tough minded/Tender minded.
A tough minded person might be careless of other peoples feelings, rights or needs. Tender minded individuals are likely to be concerned for individuals feelings.
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Explain Cattell's theory.
He argued that descriptions of human personality could be reduced to 16 basic traits.
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What is the opposite of reserved?
Outgoing.
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What is the opposite of Less intelligent?
More intelligent.
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What is the opposite of Affected by feelings?
Emotionally stable.
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What is the opposite of humble?
Assertive.
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