Norman key words

Anglo Saxon chronicles
Collection of records of Anglo-saxon history
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Chronicler
Person who records events for history
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Feudal system
Hierarchical system to organise society into groups based on roles. King -at the top- had all the control. Peasants -at the bottom- did all the work
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Normanisation
Way England was changed by Normans after conquest in 1066
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Perjurer
To render guilty of swearing falsely or of wilfully making a false statement under oath
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Usurper
Someone who usurps- seizes and keeps a position by force
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Hier
Person legally entitled to the rank of someone after they die
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Oath of loyalty
Formal promise made by someone to another person proving they will never change their mind on supporting the person
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Domesday book
Written record of property ownership across england’ with information derived from a public survey
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Celibacy
To abstain (not take part in) sexual relations
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Exile
When someone is sent away from their home country and is refused return
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Noble
Someone of high rank with a title
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Witan
Council of nobles and churchmen who advised Anglo-saxon kings
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Rebellion
Act of armed resistance to an established leader
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Succeed
Take over throne
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Commander
Person in authority especially over a body of troops or a military operation
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Empire
Group os states/countries ruled by a single monarch
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Feign retreat
Pretend retreat
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Fyrd
Working men called up for military service to form an army for Anglo-Saxon kings
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Housecarls
A member of the bodyguard for an English king armed with shield and battle-axe
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Motte and Bailey
Fortification with wooden/stone keep on raised earth (Motte) with an enclosed courtyard at its foot (Bailey) with protective ditch and palisade -fence of wooden stakes/tree trunks used for defense-
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Shield wall
Wall of shields held by soldiers stood very close to each other
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Battle of fulford
Norwegians attacked north of England where Edwin and Morcar were meant to defend, Hardrada won
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Battle of Stamford bridge
Where Harold surprise attacked Hardrada who were waiting for hostages. Tostig and Hardrada died, Harold Godwinson was victorious
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Senlac hill
‘Blood lake’ in French. Where King Harold took position in Battle of Hastings
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Scouts
Soldier or person sent ahead of main force to gather information about enemy’s position/strength/movements
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Archers
Soldiers who fought using the skill of archery
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Infantry
Soldiers who fought on foot
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Cavalry
Soldiers who fought on horseback
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Unopposed
Unchallenged
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Baron
A nobleman given land and power directly by the king/queen
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Bayeux Tapestry
Embroidery cloth depicting the events up to the Norman conquest
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Consolidate
Make more secure / united
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Diplomatic
Art of diplomacy; dealing with people or managing international relations in a skilful and tactful way
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Marcher lands
Area around welsh border which were controlled by Normans
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Mercia
One of the Anglo Saxon kingdoms
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Noble
Someone of a high rank with a title
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Regent
a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is absent (Odo)
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Vice regent
A person who acts in the place of a ruler (Odo and FitzOsbern)
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Thegn
An aristocratic retainer -high class servant- of a king or nobleman in anglo-saxon england
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Villein
Someone who worked without pay for their lord in return for land
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Earls
British nobleman ranking above a viscount (above a baron and below an earl) and below a marquess (above an earl and below a duke)
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Guerrilla war
War where small groups of soldiers -not belonging to regular/established army units- engage in fighting against typically larger regular forces
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Co-conspirator
A person who engaged in a conspiracy (secret plan to do something unlawful) with others (Ralph de Gaels attempted rebellion they were betrayed by their co-conspirator Earl Waltheof who told William the whole plan)
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Religious devotion
A feeling of strong love and loyalty to prayer/worship
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Vacant role
Empty role (Anselm made Archbishop of Canterbury after the role had been VACANT since the death of Lanfranc)
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Alliances
A union formed on mutual benefit, especially between countries
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Demesne
An estate or part of one, occupied, controlled by and worked for the exclusive use of the owner
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Destrier
Type of horse used by soldiers in the Middle Ages
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Great council
An assembly made of church leaders and wealthy landowners, brought together to discuss the affairs of the country with the king
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Imposing
Force on someone
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Proclamations
Public or official announcement dealing with a matter of great importance
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Primogeniture
Oldest son inherited all the land
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Murdrum
Law which forced anglo-saxon villagers to prove that any corpse near their village wasn’t norman, and if it was then the whole village was responsible to find the culprit and to pay a heavy fine after the murder was executed
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Burh
An anglo-saxon fortified town
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Fortified
An area being well protected or defended against attackers
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Garrison
A froup’of soldiers stationed in a fortress or town to defend it
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Keep
Type of fortified tower built within castles
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Siege
Military operation where enemy forces surround a town/building cutting off essential supplies with the aim to make those inside surrender
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Trebuchet
A machine used in medieval siege warfare for hurling large stones or other missiles
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Abbot
The head of a monastery
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Basilica
Roman Catholic Church used for ceremonial purposes
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Consecrate
To make holy or sacred by having a special ceremony
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Depose
Remove an important person from a high or powerful position
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Devout
Having deep religious feelings
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Lay people
Members of a religious community who are not ordained -those tha aren’t ministers monks or nuns-
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Secular
Unconnected with religion
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Simony
Buying or selling positions in relation to the church
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Synods
An assembly of the clergy and sometimes also laity (religious people who aren’t an ordained minister/priest) in a diocese or other division of a particular church
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Vernacular
Language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people of a country or region
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Churchman
Male member of Christian clergy or church
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Pluralism
Holding more than one role in the church
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Investiture controversy
Conflict between holy roman emperors as they believed they had the right to decide who should be leading churchman in their German empire
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Diocese
A district under the personal care of a bishop in Christian church
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Archdeacon
A senior Christian cleric to whom a bishop delegates certain responsibilities
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Deaneries
Thé group of parishes presided over by a rural dean
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Canon law
Religious laws
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Adultery
Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone who isn’t their spouse
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Benedictine
Monks following strict rule of St. Benedict
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Monasteries
A building occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows.
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Cluniac
Monk of Cluniac order, reformed Benedictine monastic order foundedat Cluny in eastern France.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Person who records events for history

Back

Chronicler

Card 3

Front

Hierarchical system to organise society into groups based on roles. King -at the top- had all the control. Peasants -at the bottom- did all the work

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Way England was changed by Normans after conquest in 1066

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

To render guilty of swearing falsely or of wilfully making a false statement under oath

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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