Non-experimental methods

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What is meant by the term 'correlations'?
A relationship between two variables and the strength of that relationship.
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Give one advantage of using correlations.
Provides precise information regarding the relationship between the two variables.
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Give one disadvantage of using correlations.
It cannot show that one variable causes the other it only shows a relationship between the two. The correlation could be caused by a third factor.
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What is meant by the term 'observations'?
Where the observer does not attempt to manipulate any part of the situation and simply observes the behaviour.
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Give one advantage of using observations.
Provides a more realistic picture of people as they are in their natural setting.
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Give one disadvantage of using observations.
They may suffer from observer bias. This could question the validity of the observation.
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What is meant by the term 'self-report'?
In the form of questionairres or interviews. Questionairres can be completed without a researcher present. Interviews are carried out face-to-face with the researcher and can be structured or unstructured.
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Give one advantage of using questionairres.
Can be easily repeated on a large number of people relatively cheaply and quickly.
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Give one disadvantage of using questionairres.
People may lie due to social desirability bias (they want to be liked).
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Give one advantage of using interviews.
More complex, in-depth answers. Interviewers are able to clarify the meaning of quesitons and during unstructures interviews can ask further probing questions.
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Give one disadvantage of using interviews.
People may lie due to social desirability bias (they want to be liked).
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What is meant by the term 'case studies'?
A detailed study of a single individual, institution or event. They are generally longitudinal (follow the individual over an extended period of time).
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Give one advantage of using case studies.
Rich, in depth data due to one individual being studied intensively for a long period of time.
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Give one disadvantage of using case studies.
Difficult to generalise to the general population as each case is unique and specific to that person.
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What is meant by the term 'content analysis'?
An indirect observation of the content of things produced by people. E.g. adverts or books.
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Give one advantage of using content analysis.
High ecological validity as its based on things that people actually so in the real world.
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Give one disadvantge of using content analysis.
May suffer from observer bias as observers may see what they want to see.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give one advantage of using correlations.

Back

Provides precise information regarding the relationship between the two variables.

Card 3

Front

Give one disadvantage of using correlations.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by the term 'observations'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give one advantage of using observations.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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