Non-verbal communication

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  • Created by: ishayaqub
  • Created on: 08-05-16 11:48
What is communication?
Passing information from one person to another
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What is verbal communication?
Conveying messages using words or vocal sounds
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What is paralinguistics?
Vocal features that accompany speech
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What is tone of voice?
The way words are spoken to convey emotion
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What is emphasis?
Giving more prominence to some words more than others
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What is intonation?
Inflection in the voice when speaking
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What is non-verbal communication?
Conveying messages that do not require the use of words or vocal sounds
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Describe the method of the Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour study?
Different groups of participants had to listen to either friendly or hostile messages spoken in either friendly or hostile tone of voices. So some listened hostile messages in a friendly tone of voice and others heard friendly messages in hostile tov
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Give one evaluation for the Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour study?
This study was conducted in artificial conditions so it cannot be applied to real life situations so lacks ecological validity
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What is eye contact?
When two people in conversation are looking at each others eyes at the same time
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What is pupil dilation?
When the pupils in the eye expand to look large
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Describe the method of the Argyle study?
Pairs of participants were observed having conversations. In half the conversations, one of the participants wore dark glasses so that the other could not receive eye contact
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Give one evaluation for the Argyle study?
It helps us understand what we can do to make conversations run more smoothly.
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What are practical applications of research into eye contact?
It helps us understand why we might feel uncomfortable talking to someone who either constantly looks at us or never looks at us at all. We have no control over pupil dilation
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What are hemispheres of the brain?
The human brain is divided into two halves, called the left and right hemispheres
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Describe the method of the Sackeim study?
Pictures of peoples faces showing different emotions were cut down the middle. New pictures were created with each half face and it's mirror image. Then each pair of new faces was shown to participants. They were asked which picture they liked better
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Give one evaluation to the Sackeim study?
The study involves pictures so it's artificial, we don't usually stare at pictures and judge emotion so it lacks ecological validity as it doesn't reflect everyday life
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What are practical implications of research into facial expressions?
If facial expression is inherited, this means it's more likely to be truthful so if someone is saying they are happy with a sad face, the chances are that the person is feeling sad
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What is body language?
A general term to describe aspects of non-verbal communication
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What is posture?
The positioning of the body, often regarded as non-verbal communication signal
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What is postural echo?
Mirroring another persons body, often regarded as non-verbal communication signal
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What is a confederate?
An actor or stooge who appears to be a participant in the experiment but actually working for the experimenter
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What is closed posture?
Positioning the arms so that they are folded across the body and/or crossing the legs
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What is open posture?
Positioning the arms so they are not folded across the body and not crossing the legs
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Describe the method of the McGinley,Leferve and McGinley study?
A confederate of the experimenter approached individuals in a social setting and had conversations with them. In half of the conversations the confederate adopted an open posture. In the other half, a closed posture. Afterwards the experimenter appr
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Give one evaluation for the McGinley,Leferve and McGinley study?
Confederate in studies is unethical as it is lying to the participants and goes against the ethical rule decpetion
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What are the practical implications of research into body posture?
People in the real world can use it to advantage, for example counselors might do a postural echo to develop closer relationships with their clients
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What is gesture?
A form of non verbal communication in which information is conveyed by either deliberate or unconscious movement of parts of the body
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Describe the method of the Lynn and Mynier study?
While taking orders from seated customers, waiters and waitresses were instructed to either stand upright or squat down near a customer
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Give one evaluation for the Lynn and Mynier study?
There could have been other reason for the different tips given for example, the size of the bill also affects the size of the tip
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What is touch?
A form of non verbal communication in which information is conveyed by physical contact between people
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Describe the method of the Fisher, Rytting and Hesling study?
Female students in a library were handed books by the librarian. Half of the students were briefly touched on the hand by the librarian when the books were handed. The other students were not touched by the librarian
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Give one evaluation for the Fisher, Rytting and Heslin study?
The participants were all female so the study cannot be representative of men. Also there was a confederate used so goes against the ethical guideline of deception
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What are practical implications of research into gesture and touch?
One famous restaurant trains it's waitresses and waiters to squat down when taking orders at tables. Studies of touch show how attitudes in the real world might be manipulated by people who want to win favour
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What is personal space?
The distance we keep between ourselves and other people in our everyday lives
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What is sex differences?
Differences due to being either male or female, these could affect personal space between people
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What are individual differences?
Factors that make one person not the same as another person, such as personality or age
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Describe the method of the Argyle and Dean study?
Participants were asked to sit and have a conversation with a confederate, sometimes the confederate was the same sex and sometimes it was the opposite sex. The confederate sat at different distances from the participant and looked into their eyes
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Describe the method of the Willis study?
Willis observed almost 800 individuals in different social situations
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Describe the method of the Williams study?
College students were given personality tests to see if they were extrovert or introvert. They were then sent to an office one by one to get their grade and the researches noted where they chose to sit
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What are practical applications of research into personal space?
People might think if a person older or younger than themselves stands further away, they are being unfriendly but the research shows it is normal human behaviour
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What are cultural norms?
The range of behavior that members of a society are expected to show
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Describe the method of the Summer study?
Summer observed groups of white english people and groups of arab in conversation
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What are the practical applications of research into cultural norms on the effect of personal space?
It helps us understand why Mediterranean men are seen as romantic by british girls as they tend to stand closer than british males
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Describe the method of the Zahn study?
Zahn observed people of equal status approaching each other to have a conversation. He also observed people of unequal status approaching each other
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What are the practical applications of research into Status on the effect of personal space?
It might imply that it feels more threatening to approach someone of higher status and we show our anxiety by keeping our distance. It also implies we feel more comfortable approaching someone with equal status
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is verbal communication?

Back

Conveying messages using words or vocal sounds

Card 3

Front

What is paralinguistics?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is tone of voice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is emphasis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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