non pharmacological biomedical treatments

what is psychosurgery?
aims to alter thinking/behav by removing/disconnecting brain areas from each other, used to do prefrontal lobotomy in 1940/50s but now specific areas rather than whole parts, last resort (severely disabled and haven't responded to other treatment)
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what is ECT (electro-convulsive therapy)?
where a current is passed through two electrodes placed on the patients' head inducing a convulsive seizure, 6-10 treatments in 1-2 weeks, originally for schiz but now depression, drug addiction and acute mania, contraversial as can = memory loss
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what are the two types of brain stimulation?
deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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what is deep brain stimulation?
stimulates electrodes in the subgenual cingulate cortex (area associated with depression) to treat dep. and OCD, disrupts abnormal patterns of activity in this area.
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what is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation?
rapid pulses of magnetic stimulation applied to brain from coil held near scalp, 20-30mins across 3 weeks, less side effects and no anaesthetic
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what is vagal nerve stimulation?
new treatment which involves stimulating the vagus nerve by implanting a battery powered stimulator in the chest beneath the skin.
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what is ECT (electro-convulsive therapy)?

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where a current is passed through two electrodes placed on the patients' head inducing a convulsive seizure, 6-10 treatments in 1-2 weeks, originally for schiz but now depression, drug addiction and acute mania, contraversial as can = memory loss

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what are the two types of brain stimulation?

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Card 4

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what is deep brain stimulation?

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what is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation?

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