Nomenclature

  • Created by: Hindleyc
  • Created on: 20-02-18 14:44
What is Empirical formula?
Gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element
1 of 35
What is Molecular formula?
Shows the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule
2 of 35
What is General formula?
Allows you to find the formula of a particular molecule by substituting values for n
3 of 35
What is Structural formula?
Shows how the atoms are joined together in a molecule
4 of 35
What is Displayed formula?
Shows all the bonds and all the atoms
5 of 35
What is skeletal formula?
Shows simplified organic formula by removing Hydrogen atoms and leaving Carbon atoms and functional groups
6 of 35
What is a Homologous series?
Series/group of compounds with the same general formula but with each member varying in one parameter. They have the same functional group therefore same chemical properties but can vary in chain length,CH2 unit and have different physical properties
7 of 35
What is the functional group and was does it have?
Each different group of atoms attached to carbon that has its own set of reactions.
8 of 35
Name the start of each molecules for no of carbon atoms 1-6
Meth-, Eth-, Prop-, But-, Pent- ,Hex-
9 of 35
What are the naming rules?
1. Identify fg for suffix 2.Select longest carbon chain for stem 3.Number carbon atoms from fg 4. Identify additional fg for prefix 5.Commas for numbers and hyphens for number letter
10 of 35
What are the prefixes? What is used for more than one?
Methyl- CH3, Ethyl-C2H5, Propyl-C3H7, Butyl- C4H9, Di,Tri,Tetra
11 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Alkanes
CH, -ane
12 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Alkenes
C=C, -ene
13 of 35
Give the functional group and prefix& suffix of Halogenoalkanes
C-X (x= halogen), Chloro- Fluro- Bromo- Iodo-, -ane
14 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Alcohols
-OH, -anol
15 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Aldehydes
-CHO, -anal
16 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Ketones
-C(O)- , -anone
17 of 35
Give the functional group and suffix of Carboxylic acids
-COOH-, -anoic acid
18 of 35
What is an alkane?
Homologous series of hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+2 with single C-C bonds and is saturated
19 of 35
What is an Alkene
Unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one C=C and general formula CnH2n
20 of 35
When do we add numbers to alkenes?
4 or more C atoms as potential isomerism as = may appear between diff C atoms and use number
21 of 35
Whats a cyclic alkane?
CnH2n, saturated
22 of 35
How do we place the functional groups?
In order of priority
23 of 35
What does a higher priority mean?
Main functional group at the end
24 of 35
Order the fg from lowest to highest
Halogens, Alkyl groups, Alkenes and other fg
25 of 35
What is isomerism?
Molecules with same molecular formula but different structural formulae
26 of 35
Name 3 types of structural isomerism
Positional, Functional group, Chain
27 of 35
What is positional isomerism?
Same fg but attached to a different part of the chain eg But-1-ene
28 of 35
What is functional group isomerism?
Have functional groups that are different eg alcohol and ethers, aldehydes and ketones
29 of 35
What is Chain isomerism?
Different arrangements of the hydrocarbon chain such as branching eg butane and methylpropane
30 of 35
What are stereoisomers
Atoms making up isomers are joined up in the same order but manage to have different spatial arrangements. Same atoms and same sequence but atoms positioned differently in space
31 of 35
What is E-Z isomerism?
A form of stereoisomerism and occurs as a result of restricted rotation around planar C=C. Atoms are fixed as cannot rotate freely around double bond
32 of 35
What is E and Z
Opposite side (trans), Same side (cis)
33 of 35
When are the cahn-ingold-prelog priority rules used
for stereoisomers that cannot be called cis or trans
34 of 35
Rules of CIP
1. 2 atoms attached to each side of = 2.Atom with the higher Ar has higher priority- if same look at next atom 3. Work out how 2 highest priority groups are arranged
35 of 35

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Molecular formula?

Back

Shows the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule

Card 3

Front

What is General formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Structural formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Displayed formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Acids, bases and salts resources »