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  • Created by: Hindleyc
  • Created on: 20-02-18 14:44
What is Empirical formula?
Gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element
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What is Molecular formula?
Shows the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule
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What is General formula?
Allows you to find the formula of a particular molecule by substituting values for n
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What is Structural formula?
Shows how the atoms are joined together in a molecule
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What is Displayed formula?
Shows all the bonds and all the atoms
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What is skeletal formula?
Shows simplified organic formula by removing Hydrogen atoms and leaving Carbon atoms and functional groups
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What is a Homologous series?
Series/group of compounds with the same general formula but with each member varying in one parameter. They have the same functional group therefore same chemical properties but can vary in chain length,CH2 unit and have different physical properties
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What is the functional group and was does it have?
Each different group of atoms attached to carbon that has its own set of reactions.
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Name the start of each molecules for no of carbon atoms 1-6
Meth-, Eth-, Prop-, But-, Pent- ,Hex-
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What are the naming rules?
1. Identify fg for suffix 2.Select longest carbon chain for stem 3.Number carbon atoms from fg 4. Identify additional fg for prefix 5.Commas for numbers and hyphens for number letter
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What are the prefixes? What is used for more than one?
Methyl- CH3, Ethyl-C2H5, Propyl-C3H7, Butyl- C4H9, Di,Tri,Tetra
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Give the functional group and suffix of Alkanes
CH, -ane
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Give the functional group and suffix of Alkenes
C=C, -ene
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Give the functional group and prefix& suffix of Halogenoalkanes
C-X (x= halogen), Chloro- Fluro- Bromo- Iodo-, -ane
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Give the functional group and suffix of Alcohols
-OH, -anol
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Give the functional group and suffix of Aldehydes
-CHO, -anal
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Give the functional group and suffix of Ketones
-C(O)- , -anone
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Give the functional group and suffix of Carboxylic acids
-COOH-, -anoic acid
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What is an alkane?
Homologous series of hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+2 with single C-C bonds and is saturated
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What is an Alkene
Unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one C=C and general formula CnH2n
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When do we add numbers to alkenes?
4 or more C atoms as potential isomerism as = may appear between diff C atoms and use number
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Whats a cyclic alkane?
CnH2n, saturated
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How do we place the functional groups?
In order of priority
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What does a higher priority mean?
Main functional group at the end
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Order the fg from lowest to highest
Halogens, Alkyl groups, Alkenes and other fg
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What is isomerism?
Molecules with same molecular formula but different structural formulae
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Name 3 types of structural isomerism
Positional, Functional group, Chain
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What is positional isomerism?
Same fg but attached to a different part of the chain eg But-1-ene
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What is functional group isomerism?
Have functional groups that are different eg alcohol and ethers, aldehydes and ketones
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What is Chain isomerism?
Different arrangements of the hydrocarbon chain such as branching eg butane and methylpropane
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What are stereoisomers
Atoms making up isomers are joined up in the same order but manage to have different spatial arrangements. Same atoms and same sequence but atoms positioned differently in space
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What is E-Z isomerism?
A form of stereoisomerism and occurs as a result of restricted rotation around planar C=C. Atoms are fixed as cannot rotate freely around double bond
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What is E and Z
Opposite side (trans), Same side (cis)
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When are the cahn-ingold-prelog priority rules used
for stereoisomers that cannot be called cis or trans
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Rules of CIP
1. 2 atoms attached to each side of = 2.Atom with the higher Ar has higher priority- if same look at next atom 3. Work out how 2 highest priority groups are arranged
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Molecular formula?


Shows the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule

Card 3


What is General formula?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Structural formula?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Displayed formula?


Preview of the front of card 5
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