Nile River, eugypt

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Is the Nile river high energy or low energy?
Low energy
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The Nile river is an example of an...
Arcuate river. Regular shaped by sufficient sediment supply and edges are smooth by wave action.
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Is it the longest river in the world?
It is one of the longest rivers in the world.
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How much is discharged from the river annually?
680,000 gallons.
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How long is it?
4,150 miles.
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Changes to the sediment budget.
delta coastline is, in general, a low-energy environment, since the building of the Aswan High Dam an imbalance has been created between two of the major forces affecting the delta: erosion and accretion.
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Scale of change.
from 120 million tonnes/year to only trace amounts today.
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Rising sea levels.
Rising sea levels in the Mediterranean of 1.2 mm/year have also contributed to higher erosion rates as deeper water produces larger waves with higher amounts of energy and these reach further inland.
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Cause of Erosion and costal retreat.
Significant reduction in sediment accretion; from 120m tonnes/year to scarce trace amounts today.
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Sediment budget.
Despite the relatively low discharge, the river carries a huge sediment load. The suspended sediment load distribution is 30 per cent clay.
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Location of Nile Delta.
Coastal plain occupies north part of delta, running parallel to the Mediterranean coastline. Splits into distributes at Cairo, over 160km inland. The river Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea.
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Subunits of Coastal Plains.
Foreplain (with salt marshes, lagoons and elongated ridges, almost parallel to coastline), frontal plain (south of foreplain, with scattered limestone outcrops and clay deposits) and sandy zone (with hummocks, sand dunes and sheets).
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Sediment discharge.
Annual average sediment yield is 4.26 t/ha/year and the total is 91.3 million tonnes for the whole Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia.
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Human Factors.
Building of the Awsan High Dam; imbalance between accretion and erosion. caused accelerated erosion and coastal retreat of 150m/year along NW shoreline of Nile Delta. Before construction, annual flood covered much of delta with thick, silty mud.
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Physical Factors.
Wave action in the Mediterranean redistributes the sediment at the front of the delta.Rising sea levels in the Mediterranean of 1.2 mm/year contributed to higher erosion rates as deeper water produces larger, higher-energy reaching further inland.
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Current velocity.
estimated surface current velocity ranges 9.3 to 13.5 cm/s during the summer, declines to 4.5 cm/s during the autumn, increasing to 23.14 cm/s in winter due to strong winds, and declining again during spring to 8.5 cm/s.
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Card 2

Front

The Nile river is an example of an...

Back

Arcuate river. Regular shaped by sufficient sediment supply and edges are smooth by wave action.

Card 3

Front

Is it the longest river in the world?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much is discharged from the river annually?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How long is it?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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