NICE Recommended Psychological Therapies

What is the interpersonal core of depression?
Causes distress to the sufferer and those around them. This may propagate depression by causing stress generation and blame maintenance.
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What is interpersonal therapy (IPT)?
Time limited, dynamically informed therapy aiming to alleviate suffering and improve interpersonal functioning.
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What does IPT aim to do?
Relieve psychiatric symptoms, manage relationship challenges and make best use of social support network.
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How long does IPT typically last?
10-20 sessions, tapering off sessions towards the end. Treatment is terminated once the acute stressor is resolved.
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How is IPT different to CBT?
IPT has an explicit focus on interpersonal in the 'here and now.'
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What is attachment theory?
Disruption to attachment during loss, conflict or transition which results in distress. Those with insecure attachment emerging from childhood are more likely to be distressed by interpersonal conflicts.
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How might attachment theory be a root of IPT?
IPT focuses on resolving interpersonal difficulty.
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What is communication theory?
Interpersonal problems arise when unsupportive or negative responses from others are unintentionally supported by the client, meaning attachment needs are not met.
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How might communication theory be a root of IPT?
IPT focuses on changing attachment communication.
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What is social theory?
Loss and poor/ disrupted social support contribute to maladaptive response to social stress.
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How might social theory be a root of IPT?
IPT focuses on building a support network.
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What is the theoretical model underpinning IPT?
IPT acknowledges that individuals come with a biological vulnerability. There is emphasis on response of a unique individual to a discrete stressor, rather than viewing depression as a categorical illness.
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How are disputes dealt with in IPT?
Emphasis on moving to negotiation or dissolution, not remaining in impasse.
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How are role transitions dealt with in IPT?
Focus on dealing with ambivalence around transition. Mourn loss of old role; develop a more balanced view of the new.
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How are grief and loss dealt with in IPT?
By working through phases of grief to resolve actual/ anticipated loss. Involves understanding loss, sharing with others to build support, diminish sense of isolation and developing new attachments.
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How is interpersonal sensitivity dealt with in IPT?
Focuses on improving social skill and building a social support system.
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What are some IPT techniques (8)?
Warmth, generosity, openness, clarification, interpersonal inventory, communication analysis, look at affect in critical incidents, use of role play.
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What is behavioural activation (BA)?
A structured therapy that aims to increase engagement in adaptive activities and decrease in engagement in activities that maintain depression/ increase risk for depression.
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What is the difference between BA and CBT?
BA has a much more explicit reward focus than CBT.
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What is Lewinsohn's behavioural model of depression?
Availability of reinforcement/ individual instrumental behaviour ---> Low rate of +ve reinforcement ---> "Depression" ---> Social reinforcement ---> Social avoidance ---> Availability...
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What does BA treatment involve (6)?
Behavioural assessment, "antidepressant" activities, solve contextual problems, identify and reduce barriers to activation, reduce rumination during activation, consolidate gains and think about relapse prevention.
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What is the Martell school of BA?
Looks at cognitive structuring that leads to avoidance, used in HI.
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What is the Hopko school of BA?
How to structure pleasurable activities back into their life, used in LI.
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What ideas support BA theory (4)?
Depression associated with low rates of response contingent reinforcement, associated with high rates of punishing events, associated with low reward value of +ve events, social skill deficits have been linked to depression.
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Do RCTs support BA?
Yes, they show that BA delivered by non-specialists in primary care delivers better outcomes than TAU.
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What is couples therapy?
Working on the quality of intimate relationships to improve depressive symptoms.
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What is conjoint marital interpersonal psychotherapy?
IPT for couples.
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What is behavioural couples therapy?
Works to improve communication, reduce stress, build positives and solidify gains in the relationship.
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What is sytematic couples therapy?
Constructionist position, uses strategic and cultural concepts.
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What is emotionally focused couples therapy?
Attachment ideas combined with family systems approach.
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What is spouse-aided therapy?
CBT approach which the spouse assists with.
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What is the evidence base for couples therapy?
Its as effective as drug treatments and individual psychotherapy, but this is only a preliminary conclusion. Change in relationship does not reliably mediate symptom improvement.
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What is the "dodo bird" effect?
The idea that all therapies are as good as each other in their own unique way.
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Card 2


What is interpersonal therapy (IPT)?


Time limited, dynamically informed therapy aiming to alleviate suffering and improve interpersonal functioning.

Card 3


What does IPT aim to do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How long does IPT typically last?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How is IPT different to CBT?


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