Nevado Del Ruiz

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  • Created by: OctaviaL
  • Created on: 06-06-16 16:00
Where is Nevado del Ruiz?
Colombia, 100 miles NW of capital Bogota.
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When did the eruption happen?
9.09pm on the 13th November 1985.
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What is the population of Colombia?
41 million.
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What is Colombia's GDP/capita?
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What two things help identify Nevado del Ruiz?
1) Most Northerly volcano in the Andes. 2) 2nd highest volcano in Western Hemisphere.
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What plate margin created the volcano? What other landforms are associated with this margin?
Destructive margin of the Nazca and South American plates. The Andean mountain range running N-S along the West coast of South America. The 8066m deep Peru-Chile trench.
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What sort of volcano is it?
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What was the VEI eruption?
VEI 3.
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What percentage of the magma of Mt. St. Helen's was emitted at Nevado del Ruiz?
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Despite being a remote area why was the Lagunillas valley fairly densely populated?
Highly fertile making it a very productive cash-cropping area for goods such as tea, coffee and bananas.
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What three things were significant about the time of the eruption?
1) Everyone at home in the valley floor. 2) Weather- storm was starting creating low cloud cover. 3) Dusk meant poor visibility so locals could not see the imminent danger.
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What was the population of Armero before the eruption?
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How much snow and ice was the volcano covered with?
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What percentage of the ice cover was melted?
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What was the size of the channels eroded into the ice cap by the lahars?
100m wide, 2-4m deep.
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What was the average speed of the lahars?
60 km/h.
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What caused the lahars to grow in size?
Picked up eroded soil, loose rock and vegetation.
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What impact did the lahars have on Armero?
Killed 23,000, 5000 injured and 5000 homes destroyed.
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What time was the first lahar pulse? Why is this significant?
11.25pm, more than 2 hours after eruption so if visibility had been better, residents may have seen the imminent danger coming and have had time to reach higher ground.
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Why was the recurrence interval a factor in the destruction?
140 years so beyond "living memory" therefore there is a reduced perception of risk.
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How many people were killed in the 1845 eruption?
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How many animals were killed?
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How many people were made homeless?
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How many acres of crops were lost?
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What pressure was put on other communities such as Tolima?
To provide important services that had been provided by Armero, such as financial services, farm equipment sales and maintenance, a junior college.
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What issues did survivors have to face?
Handicapping injuries, lost employment/property, temporary shelter.
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How was the influx of refugees to nearby towns such as Guayabal perceived?
Disruptive and undesireable.
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What was the total cost of the eruption? Why is this significant?
$1 billion. It is roughly one-fifth of Colombia's Gross National Product
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What happened in the nearby town of Honda?
50% drop in economic activity in 3 months following disaster.
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What evidence is there to suggest that the government did not consider the volcano as a threat?
In the 1985 Colombian Civil Defence 'What to do in case of disaster' publication there was no mention of volcanic hazards.
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What did Colombia not have to monitor the volcano?
Equipment or geologists.
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What happened in late Feb (9 months prior to eruption)?
The United Nations Disaster Relief Organization sent one scientist to study the volano.
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What did the National Bureau of Geology and Mines say about a moderate eruption?
"100% probability of mudflows with great danger for Armero"
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When was the risk map finished? Who funded it? How many copies were distributed?
1 month before the eruption. United Nations. Only 10.
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What happened on the 6th November?
There were guerrilla warfare attacks on the Palace of Justice in which 11 officials were killed meaning the government's concerns were about this.
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What happened on the 12th November?
Scientists visited the crater but saw nothing to suggest imminent danger and did not recommend an evacuation.
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Looking back, what clear signs were there than an eruption was imminent?
Long period earthquakes and sulphur dioxide levels rising.
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Three days after what did the government still not have?
A response plan.
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Who were the first on the scene? Eventually who were they joined by?
The Colombian civil defence and red cross. Army and personnel from 30 countries.
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What made initial search and rescue missions difficult?
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What was made difficult by the large areal extent?
The limited emergency equipment had to be spread, and it was difficult to establish where to set up medical centres.
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Why were bodies in Armero burnt?
To prevent spread of disease?
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How many Tetanus and Typhoid injections were given?
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What were 'Resurgir'?
A presidential task force to design and direct recovery programme.
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What were 'Resurgir' responsible for?
Housing, food, employment, reconstruction, urban development, verifying identites of survivors etc.
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What is the current situation near Nevado del Ruiz?
500,000 poeple in the Cambeima, Chinchina, Coella-Toche and Guali valleys are still at risk. 100,000 of these are at high risk.
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Card 2


When did the eruption happen?


9.09pm on the 13th November 1985.

Card 3


What is the population of Colombia?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Colombia's GDP/capita?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What two things help identify Nevado del Ruiz?


Preview of the front of card 5
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