What are the four main neurotransmitters involved in addiction?
Dopamine, Noradrenaline, serotonin and Acetylcholine
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What is the somatodendritic autoreceptor/
It is on the presynaptic membrane, where the neurotransmitter is accepted into the neurone
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Where is the terminal autoreceptor?
At the end of the dendrite
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How many households report illicit drug use?
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what do different surveys suggest?
Different estimates
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What was found?
Difference between estimate and 2010 estimate is statistically significant at .05%
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What happens to drug taking trends?
They come and go
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What is salvia?
It is a herb in the mint family vative to mexico, drunk as a tea, chewed or smoked, it is used to produce hallucinogenic experiences
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What is the main active ingredient in Salvia?
It is a potent activator of Kappa Opiod receptors, PCP is a dissociative anaesthetic known as angel dust
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What is the most commonly used drug by males and females?
Cannabis, aka marijuana
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What is the primary drugs of abuse that people need drug treatment for?
Heroin and crack
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How many more drink more than the RDA for alcohol?
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What is the exposure model?
All individuals are at risk of becoming addicted to drugs given sufficient exposure
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Because drugs interact with and change the brain
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What do brain changes create?
Continued motivation to use the drug
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What do models do?
Differ in their explanation as to what sort of changes drugs produce in the brain and what sort of motivation drives subsequent drug use
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What are the susceptibility models
Only certain individuals are at risk of becomming addicted because they have a particular susceptibility (addictive personality)
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What does susceptibility allow?
Drugs to generate addiction behaviour more readily and individual differences
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What are most models of addiction?
Are exposure models in that they assume that addiction is an inevitable consequence of drug exposure
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Why do Addicts use drugs according to Wikler?
To avoid withdrawal
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What is withdrawal?
A significant barrier to quitting,
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What is the negative reinforcement?
the drug acts like a painkiller
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What is the initial high?
Exhausts the reward centres in the brain and so once the drug wears off user goes into withdrawla
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The experience of aversive withdrawal is the main motivating factor
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What is the key criticism of withdrawal models?
stopping drugs under medical supervision does not necessarily result in long term abstinence, drugs users often relapse despite having undergone supervised withdrawal from drugs
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What did Wikler propose the explain this?
withdrawal could become conditioned to external cues, subsequent exposure to these cues would be sufficient to elicit withdrawal and thereby percipitate relapse
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For example,
Like pavlovian conditioning
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What are the problem that drug users have?
environmental stimuli such as the addicts bedroom or living room are consistently paired with withdrawal
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What happens through Pavlovian conditioning?
Stimuli become triggers for withdrawal, conditioned withdrawal can explain relapse following primary withdrawal
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What did O'Brien find?
Volunteers on methadone maintenance given low doses of nalocone to precipitate opiate withdrawal (reduced skin temp due to vasoconstriction) while being presented with a peppermint odour in a conditioning chamber
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What happened?
Naloxone during the conditioning trials produced a sharp drop in skin temperature, During the saline test trials the Peppermint alone produced a temperature drop similar to the UCR
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What do Anecdotal reports from relapsed drug users show?
The immediate possibility to purchase the drug, proximitiy of contexts in which the drug use had previously taken place (hanging out in a bar with old mates,, contexts in which withdrawal had occured most frequently (bedroom)
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What is the high heroin dose?
Given to heroin tolerant rats, environmental cues associated with drug taking can elicit a drug opposite response
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What drug opposite response may be?
Aversive, and motivate drug taking to alleviate this state
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What evidence is there for positive reinforcement?
The rat presses the lever to self inject a drug either into an area of its brain or general circulation
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What is a problem for negative reinforcement theory?
Drug cues motivate drug consumption and are rated as pleasant rather than aversive
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What did Hogarth et al (2010) suggest?
Data consistent with hypothesis drug cues prime drug taking by reminding the addict of the positive appetitive qualities of the drug
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What is the breaking point?
The response ratio at which responding ceases
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What is the place conditioning?
Animals are trained in a to r three compartment apparatus in which one of the compartments is paired with the presence of a drug over several conditioning sessions. A test session is then conducted under drug free conditions.
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What is the second procedure?
Electrical self stimulation of the brain
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What does this mean?
Oerant responses causes the delivery of an electrical stimulus to a part of the brain's reward circuit
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the somatodendritic autoreceptor/


It is on the presynaptic membrane, where the neurotransmitter is accepted into the neurone

Card 3


Where is the terminal autoreceptor?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How many households report illicit drug use?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what do different surveys suggest?


Preview of the front of card 5
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