Neuroscience and Behaviour

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Neurons
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information processing tasks
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Cell Body
The part of a neurone that coordinates information processing tasks and keeps the cell alive
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Dendrites
the part of a neurone that receives information from other neurone and relays it to the cell body
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Axon
the part of a neurone that transmits information to other neurone, muscles or glands
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myelin sheath
an insulating layer of fatty material
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glial cells
support cells found in the nervous system
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synapse
the junction or region between the axon of one neurone and the dendrites or cell body of another
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sensory neurons
neurone that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord
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motor neurons
neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement
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interneurons
neurone that connect sensory neurons, motor neurone or other interneurons
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resting potential
the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a neurone cell membrane
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action potential
an electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neurone axon to a synapse
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refractory period
the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
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terminal buttons
knoblike structures that branch out from an axon
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neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neurone dendrites
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receptors
parts of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters and initiate a new electric signal
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acetylcholine (ACH)
A neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control
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dopamine
a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behaviour, motivation, pleasure and emotional arousal
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glutamate
a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain
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gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
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noradrenaline
a neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal
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serotonin
a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behaviour
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endorphins
chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centres of the brain
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agonists
drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
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antagonists
drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
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nervous system
an interacting network of neurone that convey electrochemical information throughout the body
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central nervous system (CNS)
the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
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peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the bodies organs and muscles
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somatic nervous system
a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system
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autonomic nervous system (ANS)
a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands
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sympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations
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parasympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state
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spinal reflexes
simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions
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hindbrain
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
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medulla
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation and respiration
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reticular formation
a brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness and levels of arousal
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cerebellum
a large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills
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pons
a brain structure that relays info ration from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
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tectum
a part of the midbrain that orients and organism in the environment
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tegmentum
a part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal
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cerebral cortex
the outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres
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subcortical structures
areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very centre of the brain
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thalamus
a subcortical structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex
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hypothalamus
a subcortical structure that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst and sexual behaviour
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pituitary gland
the master gland of the body's hormone producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body
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limbic system
a group of forebrain structures, which include the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning and memory
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hippocampus
a structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex
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amygdala
a part of the limbic system, located at the top of each horn of the hippocampus, that plays a central ole in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories
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basal ganglia
a set of subcortical structures that direct intentional movements
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corpus callosum
a thick band of nerve fibres that connects large ares of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports the communication of information across the hemispheres
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occipital lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
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parietal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch
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somatosensory cortex
the outermost layer of the parietal lobe area containing a representation of the body map
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temporal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language
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frontal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex that has specialised areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgement
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association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurone that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex
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primary visual cortex
the outermost layer of the occipital lobe area where visual information is processed
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primary auditory cortex
the outermost layer of the temporal lobe area where auditory information is processed
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gene
the unit of hereditary transmission
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chromosomes
strands of DNA wound around each other in a double helix configuration
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heritability
a measure of the variability of behavioural faits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors
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electroencephalogram (EEG)
a device ised to record electrical activity in the brain
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computerised axial tomography (CT)
a technique that recombines multiple X-ray photographs into a single image
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magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a technique that uses a powerful magnet to cause charged molecules in soft tissue to realign to produce measurable field distortions
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positron emission tomography (PET)
a technique that uses radioactive markers to measure blood flow in the brain
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functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
a technique that uses a powerful magnet to cause haemoglobin molecules to realign to measure blood flow in the brain
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Card 2

Front

The part of a neurone that coordinates information processing tasks and keeps the cell alive

Back

Cell Body

Card 3

Front

the part of a neurone that receives information from other neurone and relays it to the cell body

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the part of a neurone that transmits information to other neurone, muscles or glands

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

an insulating layer of fatty material

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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