Neuroscience Methods: TMS

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What is the spatial resolution?
Cellular
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What is temporal resolution?
Millesecond sale
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Whole brain studied what?
Simultaneously
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What is the method?
Non invasive
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What is the somatosensory cortex?
Input of sensory information IV
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What is the input and output?
Wide layer IV and thin layer V
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How many layers are there?
6
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Where is layer 1?
Nearest to cortical surface
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What is the motor cortex?
Output to other parts of the brain, thin layer IV (input) to wide layer (output)
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What is meant by afferent?
Carry to
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Efferent?
Carry from
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Where is broadman's area 4 found?
Primary Motor Cortex
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Where is Broadman's area 3, 1, 2 found?
Primary somatosensory cortex
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Where is Broadman's area 17 found?
Primary Visual Cortex
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Where is Broadman's area 41 found?
Primary auditory cortex
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Where is the stimulator placed?
Above scalp, contains coil of wire
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What does the stimulator do?
Produce a brief pulse of high electrical current fed through coil
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What des the magnetic field do?
Flux lines perpendicular to the plane of the coil
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What does the magnetic field induce?
Electric field perpendicular
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What does electric field lead to?
Neuronal excitation within the brain
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What do TMS effects depend on?
The stimulation site
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If TMS is used in motor cortex stimulation?
Activates corticospinal neurons trans synaptically
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Where is the TMS coil placed?
5cm Lateral from ventex
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What twitches?
Contralateral thumb twitches
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What is recorded?
Motor EPS (surface EMG)
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What else is recorded?
REcord silent period in contracted target muscles
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What are the excitatory effects when measuring cortex stimulation?
Excitatory effects: Phosphenes
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What are the inhibitory effects?
Suppression of motion, perception and letter identifications
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What does applying TMS to somatosensory cortex lead to?
May elicit tingling, block the detection of peripheral stimuli (PAin)
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What can be modified?
Somatosensory evoked potentials
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What happens during auditory stimulation?
Interpretation of results challenging: Laid coil click
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What is recorded during frontal cortex stimulation?
Effect on subjects mood
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Crossmodal plasticity in the brain
Blind people can learn to read braille
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How?
Superior tactile perception
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What is said to be activated in a blind persn during braille reading?
Visual cortex
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Chronometry definition
Accurate Time measurement
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What pps were used?
Early blind subjects
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What was presented?
Real and nonsensical braille stimulated presented VIA tactile stimulator
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What was varied?I
Interval between tactile braille stimulus and TMS
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What was the subjects task?
Detect stimuli, identify stimuli as real vs non sensosial
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What is the dependent variable?
Number of correctly detected/identified stimuli
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What is the conclusion?
Visual cortex contributes to tactile information processing in early blind subjects
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What happens in the occipital cortex
REgardless of stimulation, the detection of braille stays constant.
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What happens between 50 and 80ms after Tms?
Decreases performance of number of braille stimuli correctly identified
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What does this suggest?
Contribution of the occipital cortex is used for identification of braille characters in early blind subjects
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What is this?
What normal people use to understand words
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What do error rates depend on?
Site of visual lesion
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Crossmodol plasticity ?
In early blind subjects: occipital cortex supports braille reading
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Advantages?
Temporal resolution in millesecond range, repeated study in same subjects, study double dissociation
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Disadvantages?
Only one at cortical areas only, auditory cortex stimulation problematic
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For sighted controls:
Max error rate after anterior parietal virtual lesions
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For early blind subjects:
Max error rate after occipital visual lesions
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Card 2

Front

What is temporal resolution?

Back

Millesecond sale

Card 3

Front

Whole brain studied what?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the method?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the somatosensory cortex?

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