Neurons and Synaptic Transmission

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What are neurons?
Specialised cells to carry neural information throughout the body
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What are the three types of neuron?
Sensory, Relay, Motor Neurons
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What is the structure of a neuron?
Cell body, Dendrites, axon
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What are dendrites?
Receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors
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What is the cell body?
Control Centre of the neuron
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What is the axon?
The impulse is carried along the axon
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What forms around the axon?
Myelin Sheath which insulates a layer around the axon
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What are sensory neurons?
Carry nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and the brain
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What are relay neurons?
Allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate with eachother
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What are motor neurons?
Forms synapses with muscles to control their contractions
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What is a synapse?
The conjunction of the end of the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another
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What is synaptic transmission?
Nerve impulses passes across the synaptic cleft from one neuron to another
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Describe what happens to neurotransmitters
Diffuses across the gap between the pre and post synaptic cell, where it binds to receptors. The receptor molecule then produces excitatory or inhibitory effects
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Describe excitatory neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine, noradrenaline increases the likelihood of cell firing
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Describe inhibitory neurotransmitters
Serotonin, decrease the likelihood of cell firing.
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Card 2


What are the three types of neuron?


Sensory, Relay, Motor Neurons

Card 3


What is the structure of a neuron?


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Card 4


What are dendrites?


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Card 5


What is the cell body?


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