Neurons and glia

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What are the structural characteristics of a typical neuron?
Epineurium on the outside of all neurons. Perineurium on outside of fasicles. endoneurium delicate layer surrounding each axon and associated schwann cells.
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What is convergence and divergence.
Converge is when many pre-synaptic neurons converge on any single neurone. Divergence- axons of one pre-synaptic neurone divides to many post-synaptic ones.
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What are the different classes of glial in the CNS?
astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, ependymal cells, microglia.
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What does an astrocyte do?
star shaped cell that is the most numerous, spaces between neurones making it rigid, support blood-brain barrier and forms outer layer of cortex. They regulate water, K+ and transmitter levels and inhibit axon regeneration
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Why can neurones in the PNS regenerate?
peripheral axons slowly regenerate as astrocytes do not inhibit regeneration here, they produce proteins to promote growth. just not in the CNS.
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What are oligodendrocytes?
branched cells that myelinate axons, but also produce inhibitory proteins in the CNS.
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What are ependymal cells?
line brain ventricles and spine chord central canal. they have cillia to move the cerebrospinal fluid. certain specialised cells secrete it in chloroid plexus. these cells have no cilia.
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What are microglial cells?
Macrophage cells. respond to inflammation in brain due to blood brain barrier. involved in pain and synaptic preuining (brian rewiring itself and getting rid of unused pathways)
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What are schwann cells?
phagocytic factors and promote axon regeneration.
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Card 2

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What is convergence and divergence.

Back

Converge is when many pre-synaptic neurons converge on any single neurone. Divergence- axons of one pre-synaptic neurone divides to many post-synaptic ones.

Card 3

Front

What are the different classes of glial in the CNS?

Back

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Card 4

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What does an astrocyte do?

Back

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Card 5

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Why can neurones in the PNS regenerate?

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