Neurology & Behavior

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Stimulus
A change in the environment (external or internal) that is detected by a receptor.
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Response
A change in an organism (an action) resulting from a stimulus.
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Reflex
A type of response that is rapid and involuntary (unconscious).
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Receptors
Protein molecules that transform stimuli into electrical nerve impulses
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Sensory neurons
Relay the nerve impulse to the central nervous system (via the dorsal root of the spinal cord).
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Relay neurons
Transmit nerve impulses within the CNS.
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Motor neurons
Receive nerve impulses from the CNS (via the ventral root) and relays the signal to an effector.
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Effectors
Muscles or glands that produce a response to the stimulus.
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Synapses
The junctions between two nerve cells and transmission of a signal across these junctions require chemical neurotransmitters.
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Mechanoreceptor
FUNCTION: movement. STIMULI: sound waves, pressure changes, touch/stretch. LOCATIONS: ears, skin, arteries.
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Chemoreceptors
FUNCTION: chemicals. STIMULI: molecules/solutes, blood pH. LOCATIONS: tongue, nose, tissues.
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Thermoreceptor
FUNCTION: temperature. STIMULI: heat/cold. LOCATIONS: skin, hypothalamus.
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Photoreceptor
FUNCTION: light. STIMULI: visible light. LOCATIONS: eyes (retina).
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Innate behavior
An instinctive response that is developmentally fixed (independent of environmental context).
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Learned behavior
Behaviour modified by experience
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Taxis
A change in movement in response to a stimulus.
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Kinesis
A change in activity rate in response to a stimulus.
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Three examples of excitatory psychoactive drugs
Cocaine, Amphetamines, Nicotine
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Three examples of inhibitory psychoactive drugs
Benzodiazepines, Alcohol, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
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Medulla oblongata
Controls automatic and homeostatic activities, such as swallowing, digestion and vomiting, and breathing and heart rate.
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Cerebellum
Coordinates unconscious functions, such as movement and balance.
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Hypothalamus
Maintains homeostasis via coordination of the nervous and endocrine systems, produces hormones secreted by posterior pituitary.
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Pituitary Gland
Produces and secretes hormones regulating many body functions - such as ADH (water retention / osmoregulation).
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Cerebral Hemispheres
Acts as the integration centre for highly complex functions, such as learning, memory and emotion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A change in an organism (an action) resulting from a stimulus.

Back

Response

Card 3

Front

A type of response that is rapid and involuntary (unconscious).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Protein molecules that transform stimuli into electrical nerve impulses

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Relay the nerve impulse to the central nervous system (via the dorsal root of the spinal cord).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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