Neurodegeneration pharm

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  • Created by: Amh
  • Created on: 20-05-16 11:39
What causes parkinsons
A loss of dopaminergic neurons
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How many neurons are destroyed before the onset of symptoms
70%
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Where do these dopaminergic neurons arise
Substantia nigra
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What 2 neurotransmitters are involved in movement
Dopamine, acetylcholine
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what happens when dopamine is depleted
acetycholine transmission predominates leading to involuntary spontaneous contrtol
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What are the 4 main dopamine pathways
Nigrostrital, Meslimbicm mesocorticol, pit gland path
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What pathway is affected by parkinsons
Nigrostriatal pathway, cell bodies in the substantia niagra whose bods terminate in corpus striatum
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Whar are the dopamine receptors `
2 families of GPCR
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What is the D1 family of ereceptors
D1, D5 , These increase adenylate cyclase, they are excitatory
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what is the D2 family of receptors
Decrease Adenylate cyclase and IP3 THEY ARE IN HIBITORY
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What do dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway do
these are d1 and d2 neurons , which inhbit cholinergic transmission and therefore are important in motor con trol
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what does dopamine in the pit gland do
dopamine inhibit prolactin release
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What does dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway do
involved in emotion, implicated in psychosis
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what are the symptoms of parkinsons
Resting tremor, slowness bradykinesia, hypokinesia, muscle rigidity, shuffle gait
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What does the damage route from
damage intiiatlly result from protein misfolding aggregation of protein that can disrupt neuronal function leading to cellular destruction , mitochondria misfunction oxiadative stress inflammation apoptosis
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What drugs can cause parkinson like symptoms
Neurotoxins, dopamine antagonists (antipsychotics), depletion (reserpine)
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What is MPTP
An early 80s heroin substitute
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What is MPTP coverted to in the boody
Pyridinium ion by MAO in Dopamin neurons and this produces oxidative stress. , met is inhibited by selegiline
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what are the treatment options in parkinsons
dopamine replacing agents, agents reduce dopamine metabolism, dopamine agonists, dopamine releasers, and cholinergic blockers
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What is an example of a dopamine replacing agents
L-DOPA (levodopa)
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Give an example agents reduce dopamine metabolism
Selegeline
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Give an example of a dopamine agonists,
bromocroptine, apomorphine
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Give an example of dopamine releasers
amatadine
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Give an example of cholinergic blockers
q
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What is the first line treatment for parkinsoons
L-DOPA (levodopa) and DOPA carboxylase inhibitro to prevent LDOPA side effects in periphery
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Where is L DOPA well absorbed
intestine
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what are the adverse effects of L-DOPA
DYskinesia, On of faffects, nausea, hypotension, psychosees
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Why would you use COMT inhibitors
To reduce the peaks to smooth out the peaks
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whata re the old dopamine agonists and what are the new dopamine agonists
Old= bromocriptine and pergolide, new = more selective pramipexole and ropinirole
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How many neurons are destroyed before the onset of symptoms

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70%

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Where do these dopaminergic neurons arise

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What 2 neurotransmitters are involved in movement

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what happens when dopamine is depleted

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