Neuro - neurodevelopmental hyp

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Maudsley twin study 1940’s
Showed correlation in monozygotic twins = .81 in dizygotic twins = .31
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Finnish Twin study
508 patients hospital records Showed correlation in monozygotic twins = .84 in dizygotic twins = .34
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Heston (1966)
50 children born to women with schizophrenia – adopted within 3 days of birth- no contact- matched to adopted children parents with no record of psychiatric admittance 10.6% rate of schizophrenia- same rate as found in people reared by parents w Sz
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Kety (1987)
34 adoptees hospitalized for schizophrenia , 34 control adoptees and all biological and adoptive relatives taken from Danish records for Copenhagen. Found rate of schizophrenia in first degree biological relatives was 7.9% compared to .9% in control
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No schizophrenia in adoptive relatives. Sharing genes but not environment 10 x higher risk. Sharing environment but not genes no increased risk
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Di Forti et al., 2007
“Two-hit” hypothesis : Genetics = “hit” 1 Environment = “hit” 2 Environment can be prenatal, Postnatal, immune challenge, adverse social environment, drugs etc.
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Kety et al. , 2002
abnormal eye movements in SZ Smooth pursuit eye movement tracings from a schizophrenia patient (top panel) and from a normal control (middle panel). The participants were asked to follow a target (a small circle) that moved sinusoidally...
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at a frequency of 0.4 Hz (bottom panel). Recording was by infrared reflectometry. The tracing made by the schizophrenia patient is significantly more irregular than that produced by the control participant, suggesting low gain pursuit w frequent ...
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catch-up saccadic eye movements
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Kendall and Adams, (1991)
seasonality- Jan – huge increase One explanation is that there is perhaps a change in immune systems of mothers across the seasons – more likely to have contracted an illness
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Shan et al., (1992)
flu and Sx
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Knuesel, I. et al. (2014
When is incredibly critical – e.g. cannabis as a teenager and an adult Biologically dynamic throughout our lives
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Girgis et al,
cytokines and Sz
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Zuckerman et al., (2003)
Test at 90 – around adolescence/adulthood – LI (haloperidol = antipsychotic), POLY: I : C – complete disruption – AP reversed Effect came out later in life – showed an increase in dopamine release Increased dop release in the striatum Mimic Sz expre
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Finnish Twin study

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508 patients hospital records Showed correlation in monozygotic twins = .84 in dizygotic twins = .34

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Heston (1966)

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Kety (1987)

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