Networking

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Advantages of networking: File sharing
Allows people on one work station to share a file that has been created by someone else – saves time transferring files.
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Advantages of networking: File access
Users can log on + work from any computer on the local area network
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Advantages of networking: Resource sharing
i.e. file storage, peripherals, Internet connections can be shared by within computer networks
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Advantages of networking:System backups
Easier to control – carried out centrally from main file server
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Disadvantages of networking systems: System Security
It is more difficult to hack into stand-alone computers as physical access is needed.
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Disadvantages of networking systems: File server reliability
If it fails, then the whole network is unavailable to the users.
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Disadvantages of networking systems: computer viruses
Can quickly spread between interconnected computers
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What is a client server model?
Where the workstations in any network design use the server to provide a service i.e. online banking
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What is a client in a network?
Computer or workstation on a typical network
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What is a file server in a network?
Powerful computer that interacts with the clients
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What is the Network Interface Card (NIC)?
Connected to the motherboard (as peripherals or integrally fitted in)
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What are the cables used for in Networks?
To connect network components
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What is the bridge used for in Networks?
Connects networks of the same type + copies data transmitted from one network to another
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What is the Hub used for in Networks?
Connects many Ethernet cable-type devices (i.e.computers) using ports
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What are gateways used for in Networks?
Converts data from format used in sending network into the format used on the receiving network when sharing data between networks of different types
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What are routers used for in Networks?
Used to determine an efficient route for data transfer between computer/subnet to another in complex networks (i.e.internet)
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What do switchers do in networks?
Determines the destination of the address packet + uses switching to send it to that destination address only. More efficient than hub transfer as the data is transferred to the destination line input rather than every line.
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What are wireless Access points in networks?
Based on transmitters sending/receiving data at radio frequencies WAP
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What are the 4 main advantages of client server structure?
Facilitates centralised backup, lost data can be restored centrally, security policies for access control + associated usernames managed centrally, centralised data more consistent (as there’s only 1 copy in use).
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What are the three main disadvantages of client server structure?
Server failure (can shut down whole system), Network management is a skilled+necessary task for system maintenance. Expensive + time consuming (cost of NOS priced by No. of clients + labour in initial start-up)
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What is a peer to peer host?
Usually used a Local area Network (LAN). Any network can load info from the hard disk or use a local printer for any other work station, doesn’t have special workstations used as servers (client to client)
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What is network topology?
A way of describing the interconnections and cabling of a group of computers.
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What is ring topology?
Each workstation is connected in a ring (to those on either side of it). No central server, so is osten used for small networks.
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What are the advantages of Ring topology?
Ideal for small networks as its cheaper (no dependency on a file server). Little risk of data collisions as data flows in 1 direction only + easier to add devices to this system.
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What are the disadvantages of Ring topology?
If a network cable breaks anywhere then the whole system fails + likely to have long cable runs = problem as signal degrades over long distances.
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Key facts about Bus topology
Each workstation connected to + by a single cable which is also connected to the file server. Data can be transmitted in either direction Workstations can communicate with their peers Peripherals can also be connected to the main bus
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Key facts about star topology?
based on connecting each workstation to a single point (i.e. hub) Allows for different cable capacities to be implemented as different workstations may need to move different volumes of data
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What are the advantages of Bus topology?
If one workstation fails, it doesn’t affect the rest of the network + cheaper to install as it uses the least cable.
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What are the disadvantages of Bus topology?
If the main cable breaks, none of the work stations can access the network + heavy network traffic reduces system performance dramatically.
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What are the advantages of star topology?
If one network cable breaks it only affects the computer it’s connected to + fast response time + no data collision problems (as each workstation has its own cable).
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What are the disadvantages of star topology?
If the central hub (where all communications take place) fails then the whole network will break down + uses the most cable (expensive + can cause the data signal degrade)
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Local Area Network
A typical LAN connects a series of workstations, PCs + peripherals. Advantages, most users can share peripherals such as printers and data or files.
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WAN
Wide area network. LANs are capable of transmitting data at faster rates than data can be transmitted over telephone lines, but you can join more than one LAN together to form a WAN to span broad geographical distances i.e. Internet.
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Network ID
Identifies the network on which a device or computer can be found
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Host ID
Identifies a specific device on the network
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MAC
Media Access Control – physical address assigned to a device by the manufacturer
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Define: Protocol
A set of rules or standards
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Define: data packets
Data is sent over a network in manageable amounts known as packets. Normally less than 128 KB
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How can security be improved on a wireless network?
The router for the wireless network can be set up to allow access only to a list of computers identified by their unique MAC addresses
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How is the TCP/IP (Internet Protocol) used to transfer email?
TCP brks down email into data packets containing IP address of destination computer. Check code created based on contents of packet + a series of routers transfers data packets to the destination comp TCP protocol reassembles the email from data pack
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Name other protocols widely used in computing.
POP3 (Post Office Protocol for email delivery), FTP (File Transfer Protocol for copying files to a network host) + DNS (Domain Name System for converting domain names into IP addresses).
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Network security feature: Physical Security Preventative
Locked doors, biometric devices, Locked Fireproof safes (to store backup tapes/disks)
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Network security feature: User Access Permission
The NA will give users access to the essentials parts of the system they need to do their work – Preventative
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Network security feature: User Access Passwords
Preventative – NA makes sure they conform to a set of rules and are changed daily
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Network security feature: Firewall
Protects computer devices from illegal access to the system – hardware (part of the router) or software program (NOS).
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Network security feature: IDS – Detective
Designed to monitor the network/computer system or malicious activities. Once an incident is detected, a report is produced and sent to the NA
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Network security feature: Virus Protection
Searches computer system for viruses + deletes them when detected -spyware
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Why are network policies used?
To ensure that computers are used + managed efficiently. Can help avoid security + reliability problems. Computer, Internet, Information + acceptable use policy + email policy.
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Explain Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
Set of rules restricting the ways in which a computer network or computer system can be used. To use respectable language online Personal use of email + internet Not attempting to hack into the system To manage + maintain password security.
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Explain Disaster Recovery Policy
Aims to reduce the risk and then minimise the impact of a natural or man-made disaster on a network or computer system.Off-site copy of the backup data is stored Maintain hot site to duplicate original for fast recover after a natural disaster
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Explain Backup Policy
Making a copy of important computer files that can be used to restore the originals if they are deleted or corrupted.Off-site backup kept off site Backups logged + tested to ensure that it was successful Data backed up onto an external device
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Explain failover
Capability to switch automatically to a standby network or computer system if there is a failure in the primary computer system
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Explain: Archiving
Files that are no longer in active use and are moved to somewhere on the network or computer system where they can still be accessed if needed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Advantages of networking: File access

Back

Users can log on + work from any computer on the local area network

Card 3

Front

Advantages of networking: Resource sharing

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Advantages of networking:System backups

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Disadvantages of networking systems: System Security

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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