Nerves and hormones, responses and drugs (B1)

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What are 'nerves' and what do they transmit?
Nerves are a whitish fibre or a bundle of fibres in the body that contain nerve cells. These transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal chord (the central nervous system)
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What are the functions of 'glands'?
Glands secrete chemicals called hormones into the blood. The bloodstream carries the hormones around the body.
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Which target organs does adrenaline affect?
Adrenaline affects the heart, breathing muscles, eyes and digestive system.
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You are about to touch a football. Why is the nervous response to this very fast?
Because impulses travelling along nerves only take a short time.
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How is information in the nervous system carried?
Electrical impulses.
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What are the cells that transmit electrical impulses?
Neurones
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What is the function of the 'sensory neurone'?
To transmit impulses from receptors to the central nervous system.
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What is the function of the 'motor neurone'?
To transmit impulses from the central nervous system to effectors.
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What is the cell at the back of the eye (retina) called that is sensitive to light?
A rod cell.
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How does the rod cell help us see a 'picture' of the world?
A photon of light will fall onto the rod cell, and will create an electrical impulse which is sent along the optic nerve to the brain. The brain uses the pattern of impulses, arriving from different parts of the retina, constructing a picture.
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What is a 'reflex arc'?
It is the pathway taken by a nerve impulse as it passes from a receptor, through the central nervous system, and finally to an effector.
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There is a gap between two neurones. What is this gap called and what does it do?
It is called the synapse. Electrical signals cannot jump over the gap, so the synapse causes a chemical signal to diffuse across the gap and starts an electrical impulse along the next neurone.
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What is the 'relay neurone'?
It is a neurone in the spinal chord that carries messages from one part of the central nervous system to another.
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What do synapses enable us to do?
Synapses enable us to respond to stimulus in more than one way. The relay neurone will have synapses to other neurones that can carry nerve impulses down from the brain. It allows us to take conscious control of our response to a stimulus.
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How does sweating help us to loose heat?
The sweat gland secretes the sweat. The sweat lies on the surface of the hot skin. The water in the sweat evaporates. This takes heat from the skin.
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Where does the hormone FSH come from and what is its function.
FSH is secreted from the pituitary gland. This causes the egg to mature in one of the woman's ovaries and also stimulates the ovaries to secrete oestrogen.
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What is the function of the hormone oestrogen?
Oestrogen makes the inner lining of the uterus grow thicker. High levels of oestrogen stops the production of FSH.
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What is the function of the hormone LH?
LH stimulates the release of eggs from the ovary.
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What does the contraceptive pill do?
It contains oestrogen to stop FSH being produced, so that the eggs do not mature.
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What happens when the concentration of oestrogen falls below a certain point?
The uterus lining breaks down.
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What happens at day 14 during the menstrual cycle?
Ovulation takes place (the release of an egg from an ovary).
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IVF stands for 'in vitro fertilisation'. What is the process of IVF?
The women is given hormones, such as FSH, to make her ovaries produce several eggs. The eggs are removed and mixed with the partners sperm for fertilisation to occur. One of the embryos is chosen and placed in the womans uterus.
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Why are multiple births more common when women have used fertility treatment. Why is this?
Because FSH produces several eggs, and any two of them could become
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Why does fertility treatment lead to multiple births?
Because several eggs are placed into the uterus, it could develop into twins or triplets.
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Explain what the plant hormone 'auxin' does to the plant?
Auxin is a hormone which makes cells in shoots get longer. When light shines onto the shoot, the auxin builds up on the shady side. This makes the cells on that side longer. So, the shoot bends towards the light.
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What is a growth response to gravity called?
Gravitropism or geotropism
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Auxin tends to gather on the lower side of the root. What does this cause the plant to do?
In roots, auxin auxin reduces the rate of growth. So, the lower side of the shoot grows more slowly than the upper surface. This causes the root to bend downwards.
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Why do gardeners use 'rooting hormone'?
Gardeners dip the base of a cutting into a powder or gel (rooting hormone), which makes the cuttings grow roots.
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Plant hormones are also used as weedkillers. Why is this?
The hormones make the weeds grow very fast and then die. The hormones only affect weeds because they have different metabolism.
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Scientists in the past carried out experiments to work out how plants detect stimuli. What did this experiment show?
The experiment showed that it is the tip of the shoot that detects sunlight.
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What are 'recreational drugs'? Give an example of one.
Drugs that make people feel different, but can still be harmful. An example is alcohol.
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Most recreational drugs are legal. Why are some illegal?
Because they can cause a lot of harm. An example is cannabis.
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What organs in the body can be affected by drug addiction?
Over time, the lungs, brain and liver can be seriously damaged.
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Why do people get withdrawal symptoms after they stop taking a drug?
Because they are seriously addicted to it and they feel like they need it.
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Why do some drugs cause poisoning and sometimes death?
Because most drugs affect the brain, making people behave in dangerous ways.
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What are 'statins'?
Statins are drugs that help people to reduce their blood cholesterol level so that it reduces the chance of heart disease.
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What side effects so statins now have, compared to when they were first introduced?
Statins now have reported side effects of painful muscles.
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Why do more people die from legal recreational drugs than illegal drugs every year?
Because people do not worry about them because they have been around for so long, and because so many people use them.
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Sports people are banned from taking performance-enhancing drugs because they could give them an unfair advantage. Give an example of one of these advantages.
1.Steroids can stimulate the body to grow stronger, larger muscles. 2.Beta blockers can help someone to stay calm and steady. 3.Stimulants can increase the heart rate.
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What damage can these drugs cause?
Long-lasting damage or death.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the functions of 'glands'?

Back

Glands secrete chemicals called hormones into the blood. The bloodstream carries the hormones around the body.

Card 3

Front

Which target organs does adrenaline affect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

You are about to touch a football. Why is the nervous response to this very fast?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is information in the nervous system carried?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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