Nerves and Hormones

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What are receptors?
They are groups of specialised cells that can detect changes in the environment,
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What is a change in the environment called?
stimuli
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Where are receptors often located and an example?
In the sense organs like eyes, ears and skin,
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What are the receptors in our eyes sensitive to?
Light
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What are the receptors in our ears sensitive to? (2)
Sound and position of head,
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Where are the receptors that are sensitive to chemicals in food?
Tongue
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Where are the receptors that are sensitive to chemicals in the air?
Nose
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What are the receptors in our skin sensitive to? (4)
-Touch, -Pressure, -Pain, -Temperature
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What components does a light cell contain that are also in an animal cell?
-Nucleus, -Cytoplasm, -Cell membrane
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What does the human central nervous system (CNS) consist of?
Brain and spinal cord
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What happens when a receptor is stimulted? (short)
It sends electrical impulses along the nerve cells to the brain which co-ordinates the response,
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What are neurones?
Nerve cells that carry information as tiny electrical impulses?
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What are the three types of neruones in the response system and what is their function/Where do they send the impulse?
Sensory Neurone-Carries signals from the receptors to the spinal cord/brain, -Relay neurone-carries messages from one part of the CNS to another, -Motor neurone-carries signals from CNS to effectors
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Where are synapses found?
In the relay neurones between two neutrons
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What is a synapse?
A tiny gap between two neurones,
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How do chemical messags send their electrical impulses from one side to another?
The synapse releases chemicals containing the electrical impulse into the gap which diffuses across the gap and makes the next neurone transmit an electrical signal,
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What is a relfex action?
When a quick response is needed and it doesnt involve the brain to co-ordiante the reponse,
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What are the stages in a simple reflex action? Start with stimuli to action,
Stimulus->Receptor->Sensory neurone->relay neurone->motor neurone->effector->action
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What is an effector?
Any part of the body that produces the response,
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What are two examples of effectors?
-A muscle contracting, -A gland releasing hormones or other chemicals,
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What is homeostatis and what two things is it controlled by?
The maintenance of a constant internal environment of our body which is controlled by the nervous system and hormones,
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How is water lost from out bodies? (4)
-Lungs when we exhale, -Skin through sweating, -Urine by kidneys, -Faeces,
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What is released when there is too little water and from what?
ADH is released from the pituitary gland,
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What is the stages of when the body has too little water starting from where it is detected in the brain to normal blood water levels?
The brain detects too little water in the blood->Pituitary glans releases ADH->Kidneys maintain blood water levels->Less water is lost in urine so it is more concentrates->Blood water level returns to normal
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What is the stages of when the body has too much water starting from where it is detected in the brain to normal blood water levels?
Brain detects too much water in blood->Pituitary gland releases less ADH->Kidneys reduce blood water level->More water reachers the bladder so urine is dilated->Blood water levels return to normal,
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How is ion content or salt controlled? How do we lose ions?
Through the skin when we sweat and through urine from the kidneys
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What controls the temperature?
The thermoregularity centre in the brain
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Why is the tempetaure controlled at important?
it has to be optimum temperatures at which enzymes work best at,
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How do we control our temperature?
-Sweating, shivering and controlling blood flow to the skin,
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Why is our blood sugar levels controlled?
To provide our cells with a constant supply of energy
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How is the blood sugar levels controlled? What is released?
By the pancreas which releases insulin and glucagon,
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What are hormones and where are they released?
Hormones are chemicals secreted by glands in the body which are released by different glands in our body,
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What is the function of hormones?
To regulate the function of many cells and organs,
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Give two examples of glands and what hormones they release and their function?
Ovary-Produces oestrogen which changes at puberty and helps control the menstrual cycle, -Pancreas-Produces insulin which controls blood sugar levels, -Adrenal Glans-Produces adrenaline to prepare the body for rapid activity,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a change in the environment called?

Back

stimuli

Card 3

Front

Where are receptors often located and an example?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the receptors in our eyes sensitive to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the receptors in our ears sensitive to? (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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