Nazi's 1933-39

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How was Hitler able to consolidate power quickly
Hitler being both Chancellor and leader of the largest part -  He could rule with emergency decree -  Goering (Nazi in the cabinet) was able to incorporate the SA into the police force and could direct them against the SPD and KPD -
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Nazi seizure of power
¥ Feb, 1933 Hitler persuaded conservative cabinet to agree to fresh election for 5th March (controlled by Nazis using emergency decree and repression
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Results of REichstag fire
the Reichstag fire (27th Feb) – Decree banned free speech, free press and freedom of association
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the process where NP successively established totalitarian state, with absolute power over the individual, society and commerce.
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What Gleichschaltung acheived?
−  State govt. was unified to federal system. −  May 2 →trade unions were abolished and replaced by German Labour Front. −  By 14 July a decree made the Nazi Party the only legal political party.
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October and November 1933
Oct. 1933 →Hitler withdrew Germany from League of Nations, which came from the TOV. In an election in Nov. was 87.8% of vote for Nazis even though there was no opposition; this showed clear approval for Hitler.
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¥ The Night of Long Knives
Hitler removed any challenge to his authority, the concerns of the army (worried by the SA’s attempt to overtake them), big business and the general public by having the SS and Gestapo eliminate the SA leadership
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What happened after Hindenburg's death?
2nd August Hindenburg’s death the army and civil service swore an oath of personal allegiance to Hitler as Fuhrer. The Emergence of the Nazi State
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What allowed Hitler to create a totalitarian state
The Reichstag fire and its consequences The campaign of intimidation against the communists
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Define totalitarian
a system of government in which total power and all aspects of state affairs are in the hands of one party that tolerate no opposition. Fascism: subordination of the individual to advance the interests of the state
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Popular nature of Nazism
o Achieved 44% of the vote in the March 33 election—largest number in Weimar history o Plebiscites ♣ Hitler loved having plebiscites ♣ March 36—when he marched on the Rhineland he called a plebiscite to ask if the German population agreed…90% yes
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Goebbels role in propaganda
o Decreased opposition o Created the Fuhrer Myth “a leader both ordinary and extraordinary” Kershaw o Publicity given to domestic successes recovery from depression whilst UK and US still in depression
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Effect of Nazism
o End depression, booming industries o German Labour Front—cruises, ski trips o Hitler youth o Women’s policies o Notion of returning to national greatness
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Why was opposition impossible
GLEISCHALTUNG • Explain term—process of co ordination: all institutions and organisations were under direct or indirect control by the Nazis e.g. trade unions, education. Army etc.
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Key dates in gleischaltung
• 14th July 1933—all political partiers were banned • Feb 1934—end of Reichsrat
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The night of the long knives
• SS and Army disbanded the SA (who had helped Hitler gain power) and murdered Rohm • Essentially the end of any effective opposition to the regime (rid of external)
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Organs of state terror
o Always in the background, Germans believed that terror was ever present o Totalitarian control was unquestioned o When in fact it was not the case, the Gestapo had very few officials
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ATOMISATION OF SOCIETY (caused by Nazi threat of terror)
• Created an atmosphere of fear that everyone was being watched • People were scared to voice their views—therefore unable to organise opposition • Essentially it is this that prevents effective opposition from forming
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Quote on propoganda
Overy, Party symbols were effective
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Joseph Gobbles minster for Enlightenment and propaganda in March 1933m Fuhrer Myth any mistake was other nazi officials, "i love Hitler, but hate the Nazis"
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Fuhrer Myth creation
Hitler given credit for ending the great depression, facing labour shortages by 1936, ended threat of communism, restored law and order
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Quotes on propogandag
Evans - "hysterical mss adulation... would surely have an effect in persuading many to swim the tide of popular opinion
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Quote on terror
The nazi terror machine reached down even to the smallest units of everyday life and daily work
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What elements contributed to lack of oppostion
Terror and repression, gleichartig, the nazis are the answer and propaganda
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Nazi youth groups
Hitler Youth and the Legue of German maidens instilled with notions of racial purity and patriotism
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Nazi youth stats
1933 2.29 mill in youth group, 1939 8.8 million
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Quotes on youth
"In sum, children appeared to havee become more brutal, fitter and stupider than they (their parents were)
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Nazi policies towards women
Hitler believed that women should be able to bear children for the fatherland. They should therefore be fit, hence youth movement. The law of encouragement of marriage 1000 marks, and creation of lebenborn
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Racial policies towards birth
Women unracialy pure were sterralized, 28000 and aryan men pressured to divorce jewish wives
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Racial policy dates
April 33 called for a boycott of Jewish businesses \ mid 1935 formal legislation prohibited Jews from a range of activities, the reich citizen act, the blood protection act
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What was Crystal night>
A german diplomat was shot in paris by a jew, prompting large and-Jewish action. Thousands of jews were marched into camps and forced to pay for the damage they had made "on that night"
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Elements of Nazi foreign policy
Grossdeutchland, peace and western pacifism,
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Chamberlin and the scrap of paper, conference after Abasing disaster
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Nazi seizure of power


¥ Feb, 1933 Hitler persuaded conservative cabinet to agree to fresh election for 5th March (controlled by Nazis using emergency decree and repression

Card 3


Results of REichstag fire


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What Gleichschaltung acheived?


Preview of the front of card 5
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