Nazi Germany Unit 2- Changing lives


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What did Hitler want to do when he came to power?
Regain land lost in 1919 and dominate Europe. To do this Germany had to recover its economic strengh
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What were the main aims of Hitlers economic policy?
1. To reduce unempolyment 2.Increase armaments industry and to enlarge and rearm the forces 3.Make Germany self sufficient
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Economic policies 1933-39- Who did Hitler chose to control the economy and what was his policy?
Schacht, he devised the New Plan
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What was the New plan?
Reduce unempolyment by creating jobs and making treaties with less developed Eastern European countries
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Why did he make treaties with less developed Eastern European countries?
They supplied Germany with raw materials in exchange for manufactured goods- With cheap raw materials and new export markets, German industry was able to recover from the depression
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When and why did Hitler replace Schacht with Goering?
1936-Hitler wanted to rearm Germany much faster.
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What did Goering introduce and why did he introduce it?
The four year plan - to prepare Germany for war within four years
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What did the plan do?
Massive orders were given to the German industry for guns, tanks and planes (huge contracts)- Make Germany self Sufficient
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How did Goering plan to make Germany Self-Sufficient?
Wanted to make Germany rich in raw materials like rubber, oil, coal and steel (naval blockade of WW1)- If the raw material was not avalible scientists were encourged to make it (synthetic)
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What was this policy known as?
Autarky
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Measures to reduce Unempolyment- What did Hitler promise in his election campain?
'Bread and work'- couldn't afford to break this promise
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How many Germans were unempoled in 1933
6 million
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By 1939 this figure had come down to.....
300,000 ( women and jews no longer inculded in unempolyment figures)
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How did nazis create jobs?
through spending on Public Work Schemes- Rearmaments creayed factory jobs- men recruited in army
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What were people ordered to join?
Reich Labour service (RAD) - sent to work where ever the Goverment told them to go
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What were the main jobs created?
Buliding motorways (autobahns), hospitals, schools, olympic stadium and improving acriculture.
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What happened in July 1935?
All men 18-25 had to do six months training in the RAD
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In 1933 how big was the army? what had this risen to by 1938?
100,000 (limited by Treaty of Versailles)- 900,000
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What did he nNazis do in 1933 and why?
Ban trade unions because they tended to support socialist and communist parties- gave people a chance to protest.
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What did they put in their place?
The idea of everyone working together for the good of the country- German Labour Front
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What was the German Labour Front?
Controlled all aspects of workers lives (rights, conditions, wages, hours)
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What was life like for workers?
Strikes illegal, wages kept low, longer working hours.
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What were the two organisations set uo to improve workers lives?
Beauty of Labour (SDA) and The Strengh through Joy (KDF)
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What did Beauty of Labour do?
Tried to improve working conditions- Improve safety stanards , reducing nosie levels and introducing hot midday meals
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What did Strengh through Joy do?
Provide workers with leasuire activties when they are not working- film shows, concerts, excursions, a rare crusie on the STJ ship- this organasation developed the Volkswagen (people encourged to start saving for one)
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What was the actual reason for these organisations?
Attempt to control peoples working lives and lesuire time.- also to convice people they needed to work harder and longer for less money
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What did Hitler do to children?
Indoctrinated them from babyhood with Nazi ideas (brainwash)
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Who did Hitler choose to run education?
Bernard Rust- an ex teacher sacked for 'instablity of mind'.
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What happened to teachers?
Hitler wanted to 'Nazify' them. Any teachers know to be anti-nazi were sacked and the rest were sent on courses and camps to be trained in Nazi ideas- All teachers had to belong to the Nazi Teachers League.
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What did Hitler belive the purpose of education was?
To create Nazis- boys good soliders, girls good mothers and wives
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How were subjects changed?
Subjects taught in a military way or to show how superior the Aryan race was.- PE increased strong, fit and healthy soliders and mothers
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What were children taught about the Aryan race?
German race was superior to any other - Hitler was a great leader whose actions and ideas should never be questioned and Jews were Evil and not fit to be German Citizens
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What were the special schools?
Napolas- set up to train future Nazi leaders- run by ex-members of the SS- Athletics and courage more important than acidemics
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What happened to educational stanards?
Children became good good Nazis but educational stanards did go down as parents and teachers were afriad to question what children were taught.
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Youth Movements- What were Children expected to join and why?
Youth movements which prepared boys for war and girls for motherhood- control young peoples minds in their spare time
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What did boys join?
Hiter youth, at the age of 14- wore uniforms, learned to shoot guns, read maps and went to camps and on long marches
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When was membership made compulsary?
1939- 8 million members
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What did girls join?
The league of german maidens
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What did they do in the BDM?
Also did camping and hiking but to make girls fit and strong mothers.- taught about health matters and motherhood
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Youth gangs- What did the Edelweiss Pirates do?
Beat up members of Hitler Youth, listen to American ***** jazz, grow their hair long.
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Why didn't they make a differane?
Groups were small and Hitle took very serve measures againsit them- even to the extent of hanging in the second world war.
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Women and the family- What role did women have?
To be a child bearer of a pure Aryan race and support her husband- A women place was in the home and completly seperate from mens
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What were the 3 K's?
Kinder, Kirche, Kuche- Children, church, cooking
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How were women discrimnated againsit in the workplace?
Women who had proffesional jobs (doctors r civil servants) were sacked- Number of women teachers declined
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When and why were women not allowed to sit on juries or be lawyers or judges?
1936- It was felt they culdn't make a logical descion without eing too emotional.
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Did women have any political power?
Nazi women were not allowed to take part in politics- although the Nazi party had female organisations the never had any real political power- banned from positions of leadership in the party.
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How did Hitler encourge women to have children?
Launched a massive campain to promote motherhood and large familles- Gov offered marriage loans to women who gave up work to get married, these loans did not have to be repaid if the women had at least 4 children- given medals
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How did Hitler improve fertility?
They were encourged to stop slimming and do sport- Controception and abortion were made illegal
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Was this encourgement aimed at all women?
no, only at healthy aryan women- jews could not get marrige loans- women with hereditary diseases were sterilised
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Was the Birth campain successful?
Birth rates rose between 1933-39
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When did it become needed for women to work?
Needed in industry when Germany started to recover from the depression- late 30s labour shortages, women needed in factories- more jobs in 39 than there were in 33
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Did Nazis actually encourge family life?
Although they claimed to many of there polices undermined family life- children so busy spent little time with family- mothers found it harder to disipline young boys who were taught women were lesser than men
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What did Hitler want to do as soon as he became chancellor?
Make germany a totalitarian state
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What is a totalitarian state?
a state or country, in which the power of a single leader or party is absolute- use its power to control peoples lives- oppisition not allowed and sercert police are used to report anyone who disagrees with the goverment
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How did Hitler make sure the German people continued to obey him?
He would terrorise people that didn't accept Nazi ideas.
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What did Germany also become?
A policed state
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What is a policed state?
The police have power to arrest and punish people who disagreed with the Nazis.
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What did Hitler do to enforce this terror?
Developed a number of organisations.
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What were these organisations?
Control over regional&local govs- The SS- The Gestapo- The courts- Inforcers
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What was Control over regional and local goverment?
In Jan 1934 Hitler abolished all the individual states in Germany and brought them under central control.- then country was divided into regions.
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What where these regions?
Known as Gau, each headed by a Reich governer known as Gauleiter.
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What was a Gaulieter?
These where loyal Nazi officals who were appointed by Hitler and were given lots of power- appoint and dismiss a mayor and local councillors.
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How did this help Hitler?
Gave him tight control over what was happening on a local level.
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What was the SS?
The SS(schuzstaffel) was set up in 1925 as an elite section of the SA.
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How were they differant to the SA?
The SA were undisiplined thugs where as SS member were highly disaplined and utterly loyal to Hitler- In early days they wore Blackshirts
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Who took control of them in 1929?
Heinrich Himmler
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What were they used for after 1933?
To cruelly enforce Hilters polices againsist the Jews and run concentration camps- when Hitler got rid of Roehm the SS did the dirty work
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When did the SS become the main secrity force?
After the night of the long knives- in 1936 they were given control of the oridanry police and the Gestapo
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By 1939 what 3 parts did the SS consit of?
1. State security 2. Waffen SS(provided most comitted and dependable soliders) 3. 'Death heads' units (controlled concentration and death camps)
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When and who set up the Gestapo?
1933 by Hermann Goering- (1936 under control of SS)
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What was the Gestapo?
The job of the Gestapo was to track down opponents of the Nazis and send them to concentration camps.
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Could then courts protect the German People?
No- SS and Gestapo could put people in concentration camps.
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Who were the judges?
Nazi supporters
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what did they belong to?
Nazi league for the maintenance of law and order
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When and what was the peoples court?
1934- to try people for crimes againsit the state- by 39 over 500 sentenced to death and CC
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What were towns split into?
Blocks, which only inculded a hanful of homes
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Who checked on the block and what did they do?
Blockwardens- 'ears and eyes' of the party reported any supsicouis and anti-nazi supporters
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How did the Nazi ideas relate to the church?
The Nazi ideas were opposed to the beliefs and values of the christian church- Germany christian country so could not ignore church
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How were the ideas differant?
Nazis glorified strengh, violence and racial superiority where as christians taught love, forgiveness and respect for all people.
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How many people were christian in germany?
two thirds were protestants, where as the other third were roman catholics.
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Why were the chruchs willing to support Hilter despite the violence?
1. Nazis supported old fashioned family values 2. opposed to communism (feared communism as they would destroy christianty) 3. Hilter set out to gain support of the chruches.
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When and what did Hilter sign with the pope?
1933- concordat
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What is a Concordat?
This is an agreement that said the catholic church would be left alone by the Nazis as long as the chruch stayed out of politics.
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Did Hilter stick to this agreement?
No- Used it to get Centre party(catholic) support to get the enabaling act through the Reichstag then ignored it
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What did Hilter start to do?
Harass and arrest catholic priests who were suspected of being anti-nazi.
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What happened to Catholic children?
Catholic schools brought under control of the nazis so Nazi children could be indoctrinated with Nazi propaganda- Catholic youth organisations banned because parents preferred to send them to catholic youth rather than Hitler youth.
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How did the pope react?
Attacked the Nazis in a famous statement called 'With Burning Anxiety'
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What Catholic openly opposed the Goverment?
Gardinal Galen- publicy attacked nazi polices (1934)- in 1941 he revelaed that the nazis were killing mentally and physically handicapped people- statements read from pulpits in chruches across germany- hitler halted the euthanaisia programe.
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What did Hilter do to the protestant churches?
United them under the leadership of a pro-nazi called Muller- adopted nazi style uniforms and mein kampf replaced the bible
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What was Muller and the chruch he led known as?
Reich Bishop- German Christian Church or National reich Church
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What happened as a result as some people opposing Hitler?
The 'Confessional Church' was formed- Ministers sent to CC (Martin Niemoller) - protestant schools and youth clubs faced the same fate as those of the Catholic Church.
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What did Hitler try to do?
Start The German faith Movement- based on the adulation of Hitler as a new god- rejected christian ideas and inculded many pagan ideas- did not recive much support
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What happened to the churches in Germany overall?
Nazis never destroyed the churches- just made it difficult for christians to worship but services were still held- He did manage to weaken the chruches (less resistance to his polices)
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What did the goverment use propoganda for?
To persaude people to think and behave in a certain way- To convice the german people that their polices were right for germany
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What was censorship?
They tried prevent people hearing reading or seeing anything critical of the Nazis.
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Why were propaganda and censorship important to the Nazis?
Vital to making sure most germans supported Nazi ideas
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Who controlled Propaganda and Censorship?
Minister of people's enlightenment and propaganda- Joseph Goebbels- genius with propaganda
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How were Rallies and campaigns used?
Held all over the country to show how popular Hitler and the Nazis were and to persaude people that Nazi Germany was powerful and great.
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What was the annual rally called?
Nuremburg Rally- Music, lighting and banners were used as a backdrop for Hitler speeches.
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How was the 1936 Berlin olympics used?
propaganda oppertunity to show the superiority of the thrid reich- german athletes won more medals than any other country.
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How were posters used?
poster campains were a way of giving ideas and images an important place in peoples minds- images of hilter as a wise leader appered on many.
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How were Radios introduced?
Radios were realtively new- industry was encourge to mass produce cheap radios that everyone could afford- 1939 more radios per head of population than any other country
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Where were Radios placed?
Cafes, shops, streets, factories and homes
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What were the radio programes like?
Carefully controlled- Hitlers speeches were frequently broadcasted- short range radios so no forgein stations or alternative views could not be picked up.
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How was the presses controlled?
Non-Nazis newspapers shut down or taken over- Editors told what they could print- News biased in favour of the nazis- sales went down because people found them repetive and boring.
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What was the cinema like?
Very popular- before each flim a news reel gloryfing hitler was shown- cinema made normal flims with a pro-Nazi slant
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How were flims censored?
All film plots had to be shown to Goebbels before production started.
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How were books, theatre, art and music controlled?
writers, composers and artists were persauded or forced to produce in praise of hitler and the thrid reich
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What happened to books wrote by jews, communists and anti-nazis?
Banned- many were destroyed in a public book burning in 1933.
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Were people allowed t listen to the music they wanted?
no- jazz music banned because it was the music of american negros.
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What happened to art?
Much modern art was considered 'degenerate' and galleries were forced to get rid of it.
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Card 2

Front

What were the main aims of Hitlers economic policy?

Back

1. To reduce unempolyment 2.Increase armaments industry and to enlarge and rearm the forces 3.Make Germany self sufficient

Card 3

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Economic policies 1933-39- Who did Hitler chose to control the economy and what was his policy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What was the New plan?

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Card 5

Front

Why did he make treaties with less developed Eastern European countries?

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