Nature of Memory Researchers

HideShow resource information
Peterson and Peterson- Duration of STM
Gave 24 participants a 'nonsense trigram' to remember and also a three digit number. The participants were asked to count backwards from the three digit number for a certain amount of time, and then recall the 'nonsense trigram'.
1 of 13
Naine et al- Duration of STM
Similar to Peterson and Petersons study, excpet the participants were asked to recall the same items across the trials.
2 of 13
Shepard- Duration of LTM
Conducted a laboratory experiment to test LTM. He showed participants 612 memorable pictures one at a time. An hour later they were shown the pictures again, with perfect recognition. Four months later recognition had dropped to 50%.
3 of 13
Bahrick et al- Duration of LTM
Conducted a natural experiment asking people to name the people in the pictures of their year book. 48 years on people were still 70% accurate on recall, as meaningful information is more likely to be remembered.
4 of 13
Miller- Capacity of STM
Reviewed previous research and found that the span of STM was 7+/- 2. For example, people can cope with counting seven dots on a screen but may struggle with more than this.
5 of 13
Jacobs- Capacity of STM
Used the digit span technique and found that the average span for digits was 9.3 and the average span for letters was 7.3. It may be easier to recall digits because there are only 0-9 digits whereas there are 26 letters.
6 of 13
Jacobs- Further Research
Jacobs also found that digit span increased with age, 8 year olds could remember an average of 6.6 digits, whereas 19 year olds could remember 8.6. This may be due to an increase of brain capacity or the development of techniques used to store memory
7 of 13
Miller- Chunking
He found that people could recall 5 words just as well as they could recall 5 letters, this is due to chunking things together in order to remember them.
8 of 13
Simon- Chunking
Conducted a labortatory experiment and found that the size of the chunk mattered. He found that people had a shorter span for larger chunks such as 8-word phrases, than they did with smaller chunks such as one word syllables
9 of 13
Cowan- Chunking
Reviewed a number of studies and concluded that STM was likely to be limited to 4 chunks.
10 of 13
Baddeley- Chunking
Discovered that if the initial letters of a postcode were meaningful (CB- Cambridge) it made the postcode easier to remember. Numbers were best remembered if they were placed between a city name and random letters.
11 of 13
Baddeley- Encoding in STM and LTM
Found that participants had more difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM, whereas semantically similar words posed little problem for short-term recall but led to muddled long-term memories.
12 of 13
Brandimote et al- Encoding in STM
Found that participants used visual encoding in STM if they were given a visual task and were prevented from doing any verbal rehearsal (they were asked to say 'lalala') since verbal rehearsal was used the participants had to use visual encoding.
13 of 13

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Similar to Peterson and Petersons study, excpet the participants were asked to recall the same items across the trials.

Back

Naine et al- Duration of STM

Card 3

Front

Conducted a laboratory experiment to test LTM. He showed participants 612 memorable pictures one at a time. An hour later they were shown the pictures again, with perfect recognition. Four months later recognition had dropped to 50%.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Conducted a natural experiment asking people to name the people in the pictures of their year book. 48 years on people were still 70% accurate on recall, as meaningful information is more likely to be remembered.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reviewed previous research and found that the span of STM was 7+/- 2. For example, people can cope with counting seven dots on a screen but may struggle with more than this.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognitive Psychology resources »