Natural Law

  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 26-01-16 10:11
What is natural order of our world is determined by?
Supernatural powers.
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Is Natural Law (NL) absolutist or relativist?
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What is NL not rooted in?
Duty or an externally imposed law.
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What is NL rooted in?
Human nature and our search for genuine happiness and fulfilment.
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What did Thomas Aquinas call NL?
The understanding of God's plan for us that is built in our nature in creation.
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What is NL interpreted by?
Human reason.
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Where did the earliest theory of NL first appear?
Among the stoics who believed that God is everywhere and in everyone.
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What do humans have in them that works in accordance with nature?
A divine spark.
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True or false? Humans don't have a choice whether to follow NL?
False. They do.
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What do humans need to use to understand and decide whether to obey cosmic law?
Their reason.
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State the strengths of NL.
Allows for a clear cut approach to morality, establishes common rules, basic principles of preserving human life, reasonable, concentrates on human character and all things that we require for happiness are morally good.
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What the so called basic principles for preserving human life?
Reproduction and learning and living in society.
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Why are the basic principles for preserving human life reasonable?
They are common in all cultures.
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What does NL not simply dictate?
What should be done from general moral principles.
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How does NL allow for flexibility?
It concentrates on human character and its potential for goodness and flourashing rather than on the rightness or wrongness of actions.
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What things are involved in moral decision making other than reason?
Imagination, the body, emotions, passions and practical wisdom.
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Who involved these other things in moral decision making?
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What are the morally good things that we require for happiness?
Health and friends.
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The purpose of morality is the fulfilment of what?
Our natures.
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State the weaknesses of NL.
Difficult to relate complex decisions to basic principles, commits naturalistic fallacy, different cultures have different ideas of a common natural law, unholistic and simlpistic.
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What does NL depend on defining?
What is good.
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Who thought that NL commits naturalistic fallacy?
G.E. Moore.
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Who argued against Aquinas's belief in a single human nature common to all societies?
Kai Neilson.
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What challenges the idea of a common natural law in the practical sense?
Differing moral standards and cultural relativism.
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Why could NL be more complex than Aquinas thought?
It is possible that people have changeable natures. For instance some are heterosexual and some are homosexual.
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Who criticised the way Aquinas worked from general principles to lesser purpose?
Peter Vardy and Paul Grosch.
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Who saw Aquinas's view of human nature as unholistic and too simplistic?
Vardy and Grosch.
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According to NL everything in the natural world has a what?
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What is a human's telos (purpose)?
To reach eudaimonia (happiness/fulfilment). To become God like/perfection.
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Who and what was Aquinas inspired by?
Aristotle's ideas of purpose.
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How can our telos be reached?
Using reason which is a gift from God.
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How can reason be used?
To find out what God want's through the workings of nature.
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What is NL a combination of?
Science (Aristotle) and faith.
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According to NL what is morally wrong?
Any action that is not performed with intention of achieving final cause.
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What is important in itself and not the consequence?
The action (deontological).
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What did Aquinas want to avoid?
The Divine Command Theory as he wanted a universal theory.
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What is Divine Command Theory?
An action is morally good if it is commanded by God.
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What three things does reason achieve?
Given by God as a gift, works out purpose/telos and helps to work out good from bad.
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What does bad not reach?
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What is the hierachy of moral code? (Top to bottom).
Eternal law, Divine Law, Natural Law and Human Law.
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Define Eternal Law.
Mind of God. Humans can glimpse refelections of this.
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Define Divine Law.
Bible word of God. The Church transmits Divine Law to people.
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Define Natural Law.
Directs our conscience and if applied with reason to a situation will lead to the right action.
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Define Human Law.
Our everyday rules. E.g. don't walk on grass.
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What are apparent goods?
Things that seem good but do not fit the perfect human ideal.
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What are interior acts?
Interior thoughts.
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What are exterior acts?
Physical actions.
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What the five primary precepts relating to NL?
Preservation of innocent life, reproduction, education, ordered society and worship God.
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True or false? Each primary precept cannot be developed into secondary precepts.
False. They can.
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What are secondary precepts?
Practical human rules that govern our daily behaviour.
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What is a difference between primary and secondary precepts?
Primary precepts are set in stone and secondary vary from laws to accepted codes of behaviour within families.
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Due to secondary precepts being varied, what does this make them?
Realistic and flexible.
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What is the Doctrine of Double Effect?
Always wrong to do bad intentionally to bring about good and sometimes good actions bring about bad consequences.
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If the Doctrine of Double Effect is met then the person acting is what?
Not morally responsible for the outcome.
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What is NL not rooted in?


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Card 4


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Card 5


What did Thomas Aquinas call NL?


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