Natural Hazards and Economic Development

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What are tropical storms?
Slow moving, but massive low pressure storm systems with strong winds and torrential rain.
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What are the feautures of a tropical storm?
-Centre is called an eye. -Surrounding the eye is the eye wall (strongest winds 160kmph) -Spinning winds -Circular in shape
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What conditions are needed for a tropical storm to develop?
-Sea temperature-27 degrees celcius -Ocean has to be 70m deep -This warm water provides the heat source -Cannot occur directly on the equator
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Why do people live in tropical storm prone areas?
-People don't want to move -People have jobs there -People have friends and families there -People have never experienced one
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Why do LEDC's suffer most?
-Poor quality housing -LEDC's don't have money to protect or predict -Healthcare is worse -People aren't educated about them
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Where and when did Hurricane Katrina occur?
MEDC- August 2005, New Orleans, South East USA
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Primary effects of Hurricane Katrina?
-1800 deaths -300,000 homes destroyed -9th Ward (poorest area) 4m underwater -80% of NO underwater -Electricity cut off for 3 million people -130mph winds
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Secondary effects of Hurricane Katrina?
-Superdome roof rips off due to strong winds -250 police officers desert their posts -230,000 jobs lost -1000's people trapped on roofs or attics
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What was built to try and protect NO?
Levees-6m tall, enough protection for a category 3 hurricane
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How did people plan for this hurricane?
-National Hurricane Centre gave very accuarte prediction of time, intensity, and location -6pm curfew announced -The NO superdome was opened the day before landfall -Red Cross set up emergency shelters
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How were people educated about the hurricane?
-US government encourages everyone to have a hurricane preparedness kit -Informed of the evacuation routes -Encouraged to fit pernament storm shutters
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Long term responses to Hurricane Katrina?
-US government gave $9 billion to rebuild houses -Invested $800 million to rebuild levees -$1.3 million spent on hurricane broadcasting systems
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When and where did cyclone Nargis occur?
LEDC-May 2008, Irrawaddy Delta, Myanmar, South East Asia.
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Primary effects of cyclone Nargis?
-140,000 deaths -450,000 homes destroyed -1700 schools destroyed -40% of farm stocks destroyed -200,000 animals killed
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Secondary effects of cyclone Nargis?
-50,000 people were missing -2.3 million homeless -Food production reduced drastically -70% did not have access to clean water
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Respones-planning, building and education?
-Most buildings are wooden shacks, offered little protection -No evacuation plans or routes -Aid eventually was accepted after 3 weeks -Education levels are low, people did not know what to do
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Long term responses to cyclone Nargis?
-Government created a programme for the reconstruction of affected areas, build better houses, improve access to clean water etc.
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What is a drought?
A drought is a long period when rainfall is below average
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What are the primary impacts of a drought?
-Vegetation dries -Soil dries out -Lakes and rivers dry out too -People and animals die from dehydration
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What are the secondary impacts of a drought?
-Animals die from starvation -Winds pick up dry soil-dust storms -Conflicts over water supplies -Soil erosion increases
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What increases the impact of droughts?
-Overgrazing=reduces vegetation -Excessive irrigation =water is artificially supplied from rivers, however excessive irrigation depletes them.
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What reduces the impact of droughts?
-Drought resistant crops -More efficient methods of irrigation -People can conserve water -Predicting a drought (monitoring the rainfall, soil moisture etc)
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What is a natural hazard?
Naturally occuring event that has the potential to affect people's lives
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What is a natural disaster?
When natural hazards do affect people's lives or property
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What is the earth's structure?
Crust-outer layer, divided into tectonic plates Mantle- around the core, semi-molten rock Outer core- liquid Inner core- ball of solid iron and nickel
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What are the four types of plate boundaries?
Collison- plates move towards each other, when they meet they push and fold up into fold mountains because they are of the same density, these create earthquakes.
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What are the four types of plate boundaries?
Destructive- oceanic plate subducts under the continental becasue it is heavier, then the oceanic plate melts and the magma builds up and eventaully escaped through the vent of the volcano, this creates volcanoes and earthquakes.
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What are the four types of plate boundaries?
Conservative-when two plates slide past each other, they cause alot of pressure and that pressure builds up so the two plates lock, but eventually the pressure is too much and the plates create a sudden movement, which causes an earthquake
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What are the four types of plate boundaries?
Constructive- two plates moving apart from each other, and when a gap is caused the magma from under the crust escapes and when it cools it creates new land, this plate boundary creates earthquakes and volcanoes.
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What is the focus and epicentre?
The focus is the point in the earth where an earthquake starts and the epicentre is the point directly above the focus on the earths surface, here the shockwaves are the strongest.
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Impacts of earthquakes?
- Buildings and bridges collapse -People are injured or killed by collapsing buildings -People are left homeless -Roads, airports are damaged -Shortage of clean water -Earthquakes can trigger tsunamis
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Reducing the impact of earthquakes?
-Buildings can be built from reinforced concrete -Constructing earthquake proof buildings -Emergency services can train for the disaster
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Impacts of volcanoes?
-Buildings destroyed by lava flow and pyroclastic flows -People and animals are injured or killed -Crops are damaged -Mudflows from volcanic material mixing with water -Fires started by lava flows
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Reducing the impacts of volcanoes?
-Volcanoes can be predicted by monitoring small earthquakes, escaping gas etc -Evacuation routes can be planned -People can be educated
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Haiti Earthquake 2010
-7.0 on Richter Scale -220,000 people dead -300,000 injured -1.3 million made homeless -Airport and main port damaged -Millions without food or water -100,000's at risk of diseases like cholera
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Haiti Earthquake 2010
-39 schools rebuilt in 6 months -Over 4 billion dollars donated to Haiti -Cholera outbreak in December 2010, 400 die
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San Francisco Earthquake 1989
-67 deaths -6,000 homes damaged -4,000 people made homeless -2,600 businesses damaged
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San Francisco Earthquake 1989
-Over $3 billion of aid was given -Electricty was restored within 2 days -Oakland Bay Bridge was re-opened within one month
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How do you measure development?
-Birth rate -Death rate -Literacy rate -Infant mortality rate -GDP per capita -People per doctor
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What does NICs stand for?
Newly Industrialised Country
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What does MICs stand for?
Middle Income Country
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What are the factors that affect the level of development?
-A poor climate:can't grow much -Limited water supply:can't produce much -Lots of natural hazards:have to spend alot of money to rebuild -Poor trade links:can't trade with other countries -Lotd of debt:have to pay back other countries
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Water aid case study
-Help countries like Mali and Nepal -Provide safe and reliable water supplies:rope pumps, train local people -Provide simple toilet systems:2 pit toilets -Provide hygiene education:educate people on hygiene, teach women how to make soap
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the feautures of a tropical storm?

Back

-Centre is called an eye. -Surrounding the eye is the eye wall (strongest winds 160kmph) -Spinning winds -Circular in shape

Card 3

Front

What conditions are needed for a tropical storm to develop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do people live in tropical storm prone areas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do LEDC's suffer most?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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