Native Americans

HideShow resource information
What did Thomas Jefferson believe about the native americans?
They were savages that could be civilised/ brought into the American way of life
1 of 33
Why were the natives at a disadvantage?
Outnumbered, not united and white settlers have superior weaponry/technology
2 of 33
Who was Tecumseh?
Shawnee leader who formed a confederation of tribes to defend lands in Ohio. 7 November 1811 attacked Harrison encampment Tippecanoe River. Defeat Harrison, Tecumseh killed in 1813 unity collapses
3 of 33
What was the Indian Removal Act?
Congress passed March 1830. President funds and power move Native tribes from eastern lands to west. Western lands (unsuitable whites) guaranteed tribes forever. Government provide financial compensation assistance moving
4 of 33
Name the Five Civilised Tribes
Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, Seminoles and Chickasaws
5 of 33
How were the Five Civilised Tribes affected by the Indian Removal Act?
Mid-1830s most voluntarily moved had. Cost high. Choctaws lost 1/10 moved west winter 1831-2. Main problem tribes refused move.
6 of 33
What effect did the Indian Removal Act have on the Cherokees?
Lived Georgia and Carolinas highly assimilated written constitution, newspaper and slaves. Appealed Supreme Court result independent nation in Georgia entitled federal protection. Ignored. 15,000 forced west 1838. 4000 die trail of tears
7 of 33
What was the Seminole War?
Treatment Cherokees ignited Seminoles who resisted removal Florida. Raged in Everglades 1835-42.Cost US 1,500 men an $50million. Few hundred Seminoles left.
8 of 33
How many natives lived east of the Mississippi in 1820 and then in 1845?
1820= 120,000. 1845 only 30,000.
9 of 33
In 1865 who were the four main groups in the west?
1865 4main groups: Plains Indians. Survivors Five Civilised Tribes forced settle Indian Territory. Small tribe Nez Perce north and Apache south. Peaceful farmers Navaho/Navajo southwest.
10 of 33
Which of these groups offered the strongest opposition?
Plains Indians strongest opposition. 1860 250,000 Plains Indians. Included Sioux (Minnesota and Dakotas), Cheyenne (Colorado and Wyoming) and Comanches, Pawnees, Kiowas and Arapahos of central and southern plains. All similar cultures
11 of 33
Why did the Plains Indians offer the strongest opposition?
Conflicts and disunity prevented offering strong resistance but still dangerous: Nomadic way life elusive. Hunting and riding skills good soldiers. War part of culture
12 of 33
What happened at Fort Laramie in 1851?
Agreed definite limits hunting grounds. Sioux north Platte River. Cheyenne and Arapaho Colorado foothills. Return promised gifts and annual payments.
13 of 33
Did the government keep to treaties?
Situation not improve as federal government failed keep Indian treaties. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Indians cleared. Colorado gold rush 1859 prospectors enter land given Arapaho and Cheyenne
14 of 33
What was the Bureau of Indian Affairs?
Bureau of Indian Affairs set up 1824 deal matters Natives. Moved 1849 from War Department to Department of Interior. Agents corrupt cheated Indians. Congress mean granting funds.
15 of 33
What was the Sioux War?
Federal authorities failed give Dakota Sioux regular supplies. Militia defeated them over 300tribesmen sentenced death military commission. 38 hanged. Dakota lost lands Minnesota.
16 of 33
What was the Sand Creek Massacre?
1864 Cheyenne and Arapaho persuaded to Fort Lyon on Sand Creek promised protection. Militia led Colonel John Chivington attacked and murdered 450. Shocked people east but hero’s west. Regular soldiers appalled Grant calls it murder
17 of 33
What fighting occurred in the Southwest?
Chiricahua Apaches attacked whites. Kit Carson put down Mecsalero Apaches 1863, Navaho/Navajos Arizona January 1864 and Kiowas Battle Adobe Walls November 1864.
18 of 33
How did policy towards Indians change in 1865?
Congress started Indian policy of ‘conquest by kindness’ not extermination
19 of 33
What was Red Cloud's War?
1865-7 Lakota Sioux chief led resistance army’s attempt build Powder River Road cut across Lakota hunting grounds Montana. December 1866 Captain Fetterman’s men murdered Fort Phil Kearny army wanted revenge. Johnson and Congress peaceful financial
20 of 33
What happened at Medicine Lodge?
October 1867 conference Medicine Lodge Kansas agreement Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho and Cheyenne accept lands western Oklahoma.
21 of 33
What happened at Fort Laramie in 1868?
Fort Laramie spring 1868 Sioux reservation Black Hills of Dakota sacred to Sioux.
22 of 33
What was President Grant's peace policy?
Favoured reservation policy hoping become US citizens. Popular with easterners as they felt natives were badly treated
23 of 33
How did Grant attempt to improve the Board of Indian Commissioners?
Replaced Indian agents with Quakers and Protestant denominations. Eli Parker, Seneca Indian head Bureau of Indian Affairs.
24 of 33
Did Grant's peace policy work?
Policy didn’t work ‘Indian Ring’ Department of Interior stole funds and supplies. No supplies chiefs difficult stop tribesmen hunting outside reservations. Impossible keep whites out. Fighting worse 8years Grant’s Presidency.
25 of 33
What was the Great Sioux War?
1875-6 won support discontented Sioux Black Hills reservation unsettled poor supplies and advancement North Pacific Railroad threatening hunting grounds. 1874 General Custer expedition prospectors Black Hills gold prospectors enter not stopped. Angry
26 of 33
Describe the Battle of Little Bighorn
June 1876 Custer found Sioux and Cheyenne Little Bighorn River. Didn’t realise 8,000 and attacked. 2,500 Natives led Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull attacked, killed Custer. Reno held and US troops arrived cause Sioux withdraw.
27 of 33
Why was this battle the last stand of the Sioux?
Shortage food and ammunition forced most Sioux surrender return reservation life. Crazy Horse captured murdered before trial. Sitting Bull led remnants tribe Canada surrendered 1881.
28 of 33
What was the Dawes Act?
1887. Reservations broken up small units held individuals or families. 160acres farmland or 320grazing. o Single men 80acres. Natives accepted allotments ‘adopted the habits of civilized life’ grated US citizenship 25years.
29 of 33
Did the Dawes Act work?
Idea turn into farmers like whites. Dawes Act popular reformers disastrous Natives. Most sold or lost land whites and fallen poverty.
30 of 33
What was the last major battle?
Wounded Knee 1890
31 of 33
What happened at Wounded Knee?
Sioux South Dakota influence preacher Wovoka took up ceremonial dance. White authorities alarmed. Reservation police sent to arrest Sitting Bull. Shot in confusion. Big Foot took people where thought safe. Refuse surrender weapons 7th cav open fire.
32 of 33
What state were the Plains Indians in by 1890?
1890 Plain Indian’s traditional way life destroyed. 1865-1900 descended poverty, dependency, disease, alcoholism and number halved.
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why were the natives at a disadvantage?


Outnumbered, not united and white settlers have superior weaponry/technology

Card 3


Who was Tecumseh?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the Indian Removal Act?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Name the Five Civilised Tribes


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all America - 19th and 20th century resources »