NAD+ regeneration, fate of pyruvate and the link reaction

What is required in order for NAD+ to be regenerated?
Oxygen
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What 2 reactions occur in order to regenerate NAD+ under low O2 conditions?
Lactic acid fermentation and ethanolic fermentation
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What is the enzyme involved in lactic acid fermentation?
Lactate dehydrogenase
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Describe NAD+ regeneration through lactic acid fermentation
Pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid by 2H from NADH+H, creating NAD+
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What happens after the NAD is regenerated?
The lactic acid is transported to the liver to be metabolised into pyruvate which is further metabolised to glucose through gluconeogenesis
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What enzymes are involved in ethanolic fermentation?
Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase
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Describe ethanolic fermentation
Pyruvate goes through a decarboxylation reaction then an oxidising/reducing reaction (intermediate product: acetaldehyde)
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What are the metabolic fates of pyruvate?
Reduction of pyruvate allows regeneration of NAD+ for glycolysis, conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA for the complete oxidation of glucose
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Describe the link reaction
Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, pyruvate reacts with CoA, 3 ATP per pyruvate
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What enzyme is involved in the link reaction?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
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Is the link reaction reversible or irreversible?
Irreversible
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What is the product of the link reaction?
Acetyl CoA (1 per pyruvate molecule)
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What happens to the acetyl group of pyruvate?
It is transferred to CoA-SH
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Which group is the reactive part of acetyl-CoA?
The thiol group
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Card 2

Front

What 2 reactions occur in order to regenerate NAD+ under low O2 conditions?

Back

Lactic acid fermentation and ethanolic fermentation

Card 3

Front

What is the enzyme involved in lactic acid fermentation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe NAD+ regeneration through lactic acid fermentation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens after the NAD is regenerated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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