Mycobacterium micro

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  • Created by: Amh
  • Created on: 25-03-16 11:13
Give some qualities of mycobacteria
Aerobic, non-motile, straight/cuved rods, distincitve fatty acid cell wall that can't be gram stained
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Why is the waxy cell wall of mycobacteria advantageous?
Resistance to drying, hydrophobic conditions, antibiotics, distinfectants, acids, alkalis, and they survive in macrophages
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Where does the name mycobacterium come from
myco - meaning fungi because they grow in a mold like fashion
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What is the cord factor?
a glycoprotein founf on the wall of mycobacterium that inflences the arrangement of mycobacterium, it influences immune repsonses and the formation of granulomas
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Which types of mycobacterium can cause tuberculosis?
M. tuberculosis, M bovis, afrricanum, M microti, BCG, (and rarely M pinnipedi, M capraw, M canetti
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Which mycobacteria don't cause tuberculousis
M forutiium, Mchelonae (rapid growers) M. avium M. xenopi, M kansaii (slow growers
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What is the runyon classification
A way of diinguishing nontuberculous mycobacteria based on their rate of growth via their production of a yellow pigment, and whether this pigment is produced in the dark
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What can the slow growers be further classified into
I photochromogges, II scotochromogens III non-chromoges
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How do you diagnose a mycobacterium infection (tuberculousis)
Microscopy, culture, moleuclar methods like pcr
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Where does the diagnosis of tuberculosis take plase
a Cat III facility
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what stains do we use for myocbacteria
Ziehl-Neelsen, and Auramine-phenol
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How will Ziehl neelsen stain mycobacterium
Red on a blue background
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How do you do a Ziehl Neelsen stain
Add carbol fuschin, then decolouriser (H+/OH-), then counterstain
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Which stain is easier to see mycobacterium with Zeihl-neelson or auramine phenol
Auramine phenol
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How long does it take to culture mycobacterium
A long time and is species dependents. M tuberculosis takes 12-28days, M avium takes 10-21 days, M ulcerans takes 28-60 days,
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Is mycobacterium easy to grow
No is v fastidium and require a range of conditions
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Can also species od Mycobacterium be cultred
no M leprae can't
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How do you cultre M leprae?
on mice's feet
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For other mycobacterium what solid agar would you use? What is the problem with solid media
Lowenstein-Jensen, Middlebrook agar, takes 3-8wks to grow
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For mycobacterium what liquid agar would you use, and what are the pitfulls of using liquid media?
Kirchner, and midlebrook, if samples are contaminated you will see turbicity, and you cna't see any morphology
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What are the positives to using automated systems?And what media do they use
Use liquid media, continously flag up positive growth, decrease workload, can measure succeptibility, meausre CO2 and 02
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What are the problems with automated systems
They same issues with using liquid agar, and they have a single incubation temp which is not suitable to all organsims
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How did we use to identify mycobacterium
By biochemical properties; nitrate reuction, catalase, pigmentation, and urease production
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How do we now identify mycobacterium
Use nucleic acid probes
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Why are new methods better than old ones
Neew methods much faster the result come in 24hrs
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How do nucleic acid probes NAP work?
Strips are coated with highly specific NAPs, these are complementary to certain nucleic acid sequences, hydridisation occurs, and indicator binds, and bands appear on strip
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How do you treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis
1st line with Rifampicin, isoniazad, pyraziamide, and ethambutol and see the response
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How do you treat non tuberculoses mycobacterium
Depends
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Why are molecular assays good?
You can identify bacterium and specied from cutlure and priamry samples, gives a quick diagnosis, and can show genotypic resistance
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Where is TB particularly prevalent
South Africa, mozambique, zimbabwe, DR ocnco, Myanmar, Cambodia
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How many people are effeced worldwdie
2 billion = 1 in3
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Who is it's number 1 target
#1 KILLER IN HIV+VE
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What is tuberculoss
A respirarory illness that can affect most organs, it is chronic, and there can be latency in the casseating granulomas
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How is TB spread
droplets
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What does the primary infection cause
Caseating granulomas in lung tissue
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What aare the symtoms of TB
Productive cough, poor apetite, night swats, weaknes,s fever, chest pain, gastrointestinal symtoms, coughing up blood, meningitis
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How do you diagnoses TB
Clinically, microscopy and culture will take a while to analyse, histologically iposy and look from granulomas - which may appear on x rays, and do immunological tests like the mantoux test or ifn-y release assay
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Is there a vaccine for TB
Yes for some forms BCG
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How long is antimicrobial therapy
a least 6months maybe a year to ensure infection is gone
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Which antibiotics is MDR TB resistant to?
Rifampicin and Isoniazid
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Where are non-tuberculous mycobacteria found
inwater and soil
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who are NTBM infectious too
Immunocomprimised - transplant patients, CF ptients, and HV +ve ppl
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Which NTM can infect your lungs
M avium M kansaii, M abscessus
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Which NTM can infect you skin/soft tissue
M. ulcerans , M fortuitum
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Which NTM can infect blood stream
M chelonae, M avium
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Which NTM can infect bones
M avium
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Card 2

Front

Why is the waxy cell wall of mycobacteria advantageous?

Back

Resistance to drying, hydrophobic conditions, antibiotics, distinfectants, acids, alkalis, and they survive in macrophages

Card 3

Front

Where does the name mycobacterium come from

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the cord factor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which types of mycobacterium can cause tuberculosis?

Back

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