Mussolini's economic policy

  • Created by: sirius3
  • Created on: 16-08-18 11:49
What happened in 1925 due to Laissez-Faire? (2)
The budget was balanced and unemployment was reduced to 250,000
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What happened to industrial output 1922-9?
It doubled
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Which groups (3) were dissatisfied in 1925 and why? (6)
Industrialists and agrari wanted higher tariffs on imports. Ras wanted more military expenditure. Inflation harming middle class savings.
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Why were only Fascist syndicates allowed?
They did not organise strikes
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Why did Mussolini sack De' Stefani?
To use him as a scapegoat for adverse effects of Laissez-Faire
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Battle for Grain: what happened to wheat production?
Rose 100% by 1939.
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What happened to wheat imports 1925-35?
Dropped 75%
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How did the agrari benefit from Battle for Grain?
Wheat, machinery and fertilisers good for large units
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Why was 'self-suffiency' only illusory in Battle for Grain? (2)
The whole programme depended on imported fertiliser. Italy had to import olive oil from Spain.
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How did Italians suffer as a consequence of Battle for Grain? (2)
Higher price for wheat; higher taxes; diets declined due to destruction of olive groves
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What was the new value of the lira 1926?
90L;£
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Who benefitted from the (slightly) reduced costs of imports?
Industrialists in the steel and chemical sectors
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How were the benefits of imports cancelled out?
Tariffs
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What was the more important factor that curbed inflation?
Other deflationary measures, 10-20% cut in wages 1927
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What did the increase in expense of exports cause?
A recession in Italy before 1929, especially impacting the car industry
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What was the paradoxical benefit of the fall in exports?
Led to a switch in industries that would benefit rearmament
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Why did Mussolini launch the Empty the cities campaign?
He thought industrial workers were more likely to oppose him
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Why did the Empty the cities campaign fail (3)? (i.e people continued to migrate to towns)
The unequal distribution of land (0.5% pop owned 42% land, 1930); pool of labour in countryside caused wages to fall
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Battle of Marshes 1928: how many hectares of swampland drained?
80,000
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Which places were used as showpiece propaganda?
Sabaudia and Pontine Marshes
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For how many families did the Marshes Battle provide jobs and housing?
10,000
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By what percentage was malaria reduced?
50%
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How did the outcomes of the Marshes Battle not live up to the claims? (3)
Mussolini only reclaimed 5% of the 500,000 hectares he claimed were saved; South neglected; landlords corrupted spending
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Depression: how many unemployed in 1932?
2 million
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By what percentage did the govt. cut wages to cope with the Depression?
12% (1930)
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What percentage of ship building industry did govt. own 1939?
90%
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What percentage of iron industry did govt. own 1939?
77%
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What percentage of steel industry did govt. own 1939?
45%
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What benefit in the IRI bring?
It restored confidence in Italian banks and meant Italy weathered the crisis better than any other European nation
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What key event prompted the drive for Autarky 1939?
League trade sanctions after Abyssinia 1935 (also to prepare for war)
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What was the drive for Autarky's impact on industry? (3)
Established new industries funded by govt; made wool from cheese; ship, iron and chemical industries grew.
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What did the govt. deficit become following drive?
2 billion to 28 billion lire
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What percentage on budget was spent on military preparations?
80%
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Did Italy produce enough?
No - only 1/5 of what it needed
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What was the result of increased dependence on Nazi Germany?
Worried investors - withdrew money
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What was the 1925 Vidoni Palace pact?
Only Fascist syndicates recognised
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What was Rocco Law 1926? (3)
Strikes and lockouts banned; labour tribunals resolve disputes; workers represented by PNF official
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What did the 22 Corporations do 1924?
Decide wages (but needed Mus' approval)
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What organisation replaced Parliament 1929?
Chamber of Fasces and Corporations
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How many families were given special relief payments 1934-5?
1.75 million
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What were some negative effects of welfare scheme?
Employers resented contribution; no extension of unemployment/pensions schemes
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How many members of OND 1939? Also what were demographic membership percentages?
3.8 million (80% salaried employees, 40% workers, 25% peasants)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened to industrial output 1922-9?

Back

It doubled

Card 3

Front

Which groups (3) were dissatisfied in 1925 and why? (6)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why were only Fascist syndicates allowed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did Mussolini sack De' Stefani?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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