Music Theory: Reading & Writing Music

  • Created by: 07BO02
  • Created on: 12-04-18 10:55
Which instruments use the treble clef?
Higher pitched instruments such as the flute and violin. Soprano and alto voices also use the treble clef.
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Which instruments use the bass clef?
Lower pitched instruments like the tuba and cello. It's also used for bass voices.
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Which instruments use the vocal tenor clef?
Tenor voices and lead guitar.
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Which instruments use the C clef?
When the middle point is on the middle line, it's used for violas (alto clef). When the middle point is on the fourth line, it's used for the higher notes in bass instruments like trombones and bassoons (tenor clef).
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What does a sharp do?
Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone
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What does a flat do?
Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone.
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What does a natural sign do?
Cancels the effect of a sharp of flat sign.
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What is an accidental?
A note that is written in a piece of music that isn't in the key signature. E.g. a Bb in C major.
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What do the top and bottom numbers of time signature show you?
The top number tells you how many beats are in each bar and the bottom number tells you how long each beat is.
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What's an anacrusis?
An unaccented beat at the beginning of a piece or section (an upbeat).
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What's the difference between compound and simple time?
Simple time signatures have 2, 3 or 4 as their top number. Compound time signatures have 6, 9, or 12 as their top number - and the pulse is normally counted in groups of 3.
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What are the 3 types of metre?
Regular, irregular and free.
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What is hemiola?
A rhythmic device, used to make contrast in a piecem where music written in duple metre is temporarily accented to make it feel like it's in triple metre (or vice versa).
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What's a polyrhythm?
When 2 or more contrasting rhythms are played at the same time - often used in African music.
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What's a cross rhythm?
When the accents are 'out of sync' over a number of bars. This can be used to cause tension in music.
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What are drum fills?
Short drum solos normally used to build the music up or to change between section. They are quite common in rock, pop and jazz pieces.
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What is a dotted quaver rhythm and a Scotch snap?
In dotted quaver rhythms, you have a dotted quaver followed by a semiquaver - they're common in marches. In a Scotch snap it's the other way round- they are used a lot in Scottish music
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What is a tie?
A curved line that joins 2 notes of the same pitch together to turn them into one long note.
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What is a triplet?
Three notes, all the same length, squeezed into the duration of two.
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What does largo mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Broad and slow. It's around 40 - 60 bpm.
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What does larghetto mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Broad but not so slow. It's around 60 -66 bpm.
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What does adagio mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
A bit faster than largo. It's around 66 -76 bpm.
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What does andante mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Walking pace. It's around 76 - 108 bpm.
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What does moderato mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Moderate speed. It's around 108 - 120 bpm.
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What does allegro mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Quick and lively. It's around 120 - 168 bpm.
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What does vivace mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Very lively - quicker than allegro. It's around 168 - 180 bpm.
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What does presto mean and how many beats per minute does it equate to?
Really fast. It's around 180 - 200 bpm.
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What does accelerando mean?
Speeding up.
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What does rallentando mean?
Slowing down.
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What does ritenuto mean?
Holding back the pace.
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What does allargando mean?
Slowing down, getting a bit broader.
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What does rubato mean?
Can be flexible with pace of music.
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What's a fermata?
A marking tells the performer to pause - hold a note longer than a whole beat.
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What does a tempo mean?
Back to the original pace.
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What's augmentation and diminution?
Augmentation is when the note lengths are increased in a melody to make the music sound slower. Diminution is opposite making the music sound faster.
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What does agitato mean?
Agitated.
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What does alla marcia mean?
In a march style.
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What does amoroso mean?
Loving.
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What does calmato mean?
Calm.
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What does dolce mean?
Sweetly.
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What does energico mean?
Energetic.
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What does giocoso mean?
Playful and humorous.
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What does grandioso mean?
Grandly.
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What does pesante mean?
Heavy.
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What does risoluto mean?
Strong, confident and bold.
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What does sospirando mean?
Sighing.
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What does trionfale mean?
Triumphant.
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What does crescendo mean?
Getting louder.
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What does diminuendo mean?
Getting quieter.
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Which is louder piano (p) or fortissimo (ff)?
Fortissimo (ff)
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What's a staccato marking and what does it do?
A dot directly on top or underneath a note. The notes are played slightly shorter.
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What's a legato marking and what does it do?
A curved line between notes (slur). The notes are played smoothly with no breaks between them.
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What's a tenuto marking and what does it do?
A line above or below a note. The notes are a played for their full duration, or even slightly longer.
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What's an accent marking and what does it do?
An arrow-head above or below a note. The notes are emphasised (stressed).
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What's a sforzando?
A sudden strongly accented note with the marking sfz or sf.
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What's a glissando?
A slide from one note to another.
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What's a bend?
The player changes the pitch of a note slightly. It's often used in jazz music.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which instruments use the bass clef?

Back

Lower pitched instruments like the tuba and cello. It's also used for bass voices.

Card 3

Front

Which instruments use the vocal tenor clef?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which instruments use the C clef?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a sharp do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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