Muscular-Skeletal System

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  • Created by: gec114
  • Created on: 16-04-16 14:31
Axial skeleton
The bones along the centre of the body : skull, vertebral column, rib cage
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Appendicular skeleton
The pelvic and pectoral girdle and the limb.
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Red Bone Marrow
Found in the skull, pelvic and rib bones. Produce blood cells.
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Yellow Bone Marrow
Store chemical energy in the form of triglycerides. It can turn into red bone marrow in cases of extreme blood loss.
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Flat bones
Protect soft tissue (e.g. skull and ribs) . Made of two tough layers with a spongy substance in between. Very efficient at absorbing impact.
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Long bones
For structural support (e.g arms and legs). They have hollow centers to decrease weight and are instead filled with things like blood vessels and nerves.
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Short bones
Found in the wrist and ankles. Provide a large range of movement.
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Irregular bones
e.g the vertebra. Irregular shaped projections serve as attachment points foe muscles, tendons and ligaments.
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Material properties of bones
Bone must be hard and stable without being brittle. Minerals - provide a level of rigidity, without minerals the bone becomes rubbery. Collagen-adds flexibility and structural support, without collagen the bone would break on impact
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Structural design of long bones
Proximal epiphysis -> metaphysis ->diaphysis ->metaphysis ->distal epiphysis. The epiphyses are coated in articular cartilage and filled with trabecular (spongy) bone. The diaphysis is made of cortical bone - denser and tougher.
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Nutrition foramen are holes in bone where blood vessels pass through to get to the hollow core of the bone. There are other foramen which allows nerves to pass through the bone. Found in the skull and in long bones.
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Cells which form bone tissue, they turn into osteocytes to maintain the bones. Needs magnesium and vitamin A.
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Degrade and reabsorb bone tissue that is no longer needed. Waste is disposed of via the blood stream.
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The amount of bone tissue decreases causing bones to become brittle and fragile. Caused by disuse or hormonal changes, it is common as people grow older.
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Effect of Ca2+ and P on bone
Required for strong bones, without the bone is soft and bendy.
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Effect of Vitamin C on bone
Required for bone maintenance and collagen synthesis. Without it bones can withstand less force and are more easily broken.
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Effect of Vitamin D on bone
Causes a higher retention of calcium. A deficiency leads to soft bones and retarded growth. Children get rickets (bone fractures/deformations) and adults get osteomalacia (bone softening)
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Parts of the skull that are not rigid in space and can slide over each other. Important during childbirth. Allows the skull to be compressed slightly without fracture. Only in children.
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connections between the different parts of the skull on the upper surface.
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The spine is curved because........
otherwise all the force from gravity would pass through the body in a rigid column. The curve allows a better distribution of force and absorbs more of the ground reaction force.
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Function of Intervertebral discs
In the spinal column. They absorb shock andseparate vertebra.
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Intervertebral foramina
In the spinal column. They allow for relative movements between neighbouring vertebra as well as providing entry and exit points for nerves.
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Pectoral and Pelvic Girdle
Made of flat and irregular bones. The symphysis connects the two parts of the pelvis. During childbirth oxytocin softens this allowing the pelvis to widen.
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Role of joints
Form connections between bones. They absorb some shock and hold the skeletal system together. The cartilage is highly regenerative so is replaced when friction rubs it down. Without cartilage nerve endings would rub together.
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Fibrous joints
held together by tough connective tissue. e.g. skull, fibula
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Cartilaginous joints
There is a fusion of cartilage on the ends of the bones. Small movements are possible, little flexibility. e.g. the symphysis in the pelvis.
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Synovial joints
Highly mobile, low friction articular cartilage held in place by ligaments. e.g. finger joints, knee
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Smooth muscle
Found in the wall of hollow internal organs e.g. blood vessels. Its function varies depending on location, can be digestion, waste removal, or controlling blood flow.
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Skeletal muscle
Is attached to bones and found throughout the entire muscular-skeletal system. It holds the skeleton together acting against gravity to remain upright. Enables movement and helps maintain normal body temperature.
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Relationship between agonist and antagonist muscles
Enables limbs to move. One muscle contracts and the other relaxes acting as a lever system around the joint.
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Internal Elements of a muscle
Just under the skin there is a subcutaneous fat layer containing the fat, blood vessels and nerves. Inside this layer is the Fascia which is tough connective tissue enclosing muscle tissue. There are more blood vessels and nerves here.
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Energy sources for short term exercise
Uses anaerobic sources. Creatine phosphate transfers phosphate moleulces to ADP maintaining the ATP concentration. As Creatine phosphate levels drop, glycolysis kicks in producing two ATP molecules from one glucose.
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Energy sources for long term exercise
Needs aerobic respiration in the mitochondria. Requires lots of oxygen, speed of the reaction depends on the rate of oxygen delivery. enzymes involved are slow.
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Neuromuscular junction
The synapse between the motor neuron and the muscle. Each muscle fiber is stimulated by a single neuron but most neurons control multiple fibers. All fibers controlled by the same neuron form a motor unit.
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Isotonic contractions
Muscle contractions that result in movement. The tension in the muscle is maintained whilst the length of it changes.
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Isometric contactions
Muscle contractions where the length of the muscle stays the same length but the tension throughout the muscle changes.
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Latent period
The time between the action potential and the muscle contraction. Tension in the muscle increases as does the concentration of calcium ions.
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Slow Oxidative
A type of muscle fiber with many blood capillaries and mitochondira. They generate ATP by aerobic respiration. They are slow but fatigue slowly.
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Fast Glycolytic
The largest, most powerful and fastest muscles. Have large glycogen stores and depend on glycolysis for energy. Used for intense activity over a short duration. Fatigue quickly.
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Fast Oxidatice- Glycolytic
Intermediate muscle fibers. The proportion of mitochondria and myoglobin varies depending on the muscle.
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Muscle fibers increase in diameter to get bigger and more powerful especially in the fast glycolytic muscles.
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An increase in the number of muscle fibers. It is not common.
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Disuse Atrophy
Muscles decrease in size. This is a reversible process.
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Denervation Atrophy
A lack of motor neuron activity causes loss of muscle which is replaced with connective muscle. This is irreversible.
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Appearance of Cardiac Muscle
Cylindrical, uni nucleated, branched, striated (caused by the sacromere). Less calcium is stored in cardiac muscle than in skeletal muscle-> change in [ca2+] is slower -> longer activation time. 10x as many
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Appearance of Smooth Muscle
forms sheets often at right angles to each other, uni nucleated, non-striated
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


The pelvic and pectoral girdle and the limb.


Appendicular skeleton

Card 3


Found in the skull, pelvic and rib bones. Produce blood cells.


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Card 4


Store chemical energy in the form of triglycerides. It can turn into red bone marrow in cases of extreme blood loss.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Protect soft tissue (e.g. skull and ribs) . Made of two tough layers with a spongy substance in between. Very efficient at absorbing impact.


Preview of the back of card 5
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