Muscles, nerves and hormones

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How do responses of mammals to environmental stimuli ensure their survival?
Through coordination and balance.
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What does the brain regulate and control?
Regulates endocrine responses through action of the hypothalamus and its control on the pituitary gland.
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What is coordination of responses to stimuli from the external environment the result of?
Brain activity to assess the most appropriate response.
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What does the threat to safety of a mammal lead to?
Physiological changes to prepare the organism to deal with the threat by either escaping it or challenging it.
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What are the 9 physiological responses?
Pupils dilate, heart rate and blood pressure increase, blood glucose increase, erector pili muscles in skin contract, hairs stand up, arterioles to digestive system and skin constrict, muscles and liver dilate.
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Physiological responses continued
Ventilation depth and rate increase, endorphins (natural painkillers) are released in the brain, sweat production increases, metabolic rate increases.
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What is there a period of on perception of threat?
Heightened awareness
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What does the animal do when it is threatened?
Assesses the threat which is an autonomic assessment.
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What does the cerebral understanding of a threat activate?
The hypothalamus to stimulate increased activity in sympathetic nervous system and triggers adrenaline release from adrenal medulla into blood.
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What is responsible for the physiological changes of the fight or flight response?
Effects of the sympathetic nervous system, release of adrenaline and hormones into the blood.
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What does the hypothalamus release into the pituitary gland?
corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
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What does the release of CRF do?
Stimulates release of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) from pituitary gland.
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What does the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland do?
Stimulates release of hormones from adrenal cortex which helps the body to resist stressors.
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Card 2

Front

What does the brain regulate and control?

Back

Regulates endocrine responses through action of the hypothalamus and its control on the pituitary gland.

Card 3

Front

What is coordination of responses to stimuli from the external environment the result of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the threat to safety of a mammal lead to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 9 physiological responses?

Back

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