muscle tissue

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  • Created by: cat
  • Created on: 28-04-14 13:34
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
cardiac,skeletal and smooth
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what are the skeletal muscle connective tissue?
fascia ( irregular connective tissue. epimysium-outer most layer of dense irregular connective tissue, perimysium-same as epimysium but only surrounds 10-100 fibers and endomysium- mostly reticular fibers separates individual fibers
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what neurons stimulate skeletal muscles to contract?
somatic motor neurones
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what is dystrophin?
links thin filaments to integral membrane proteins of the sarcolemma
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what is DMD (duchenne muscular dystrophy)?
mutation in the dystrophin gene on the x-chromosome that causes progressive muscle weakness.
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what does epinephrine do?
causes relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways and in some blood vessel walls
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large amounts of ATP are needed in muscle fibers to...
power the contraction cycle and to pump ca ions into the SR
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what are the 3 ways muscle fibers can produce ATP?
creatine phosphate, anaerobic cellular respiration and aerobic cellular respiration
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how does creatine phosphate produce ATP?
formed from excess ATP (muscle relaxed) creatine kinase transfers 1 phosphate group from ATP to creatine, during muscle contraction transfers high energy phosphate group to ADP->ATP (enough energy for 15 sec contraction)
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How does anaerobic respiration produce ATP?
glucose is used to generate 4 ATP via glycolysis (cost of 2ATP, produces enough energy for 30-40 sec contraction)
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How does aerobic respiration provide ATP?
glycolysis, oxidative decorboxylation of pyruvate, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. each molecule of glucose yields 36 molecules of ATP
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what are the two sources of oxygen for a muscle tissue?
oxygen form the blood and oxygen from myoglobin in muscle fibers
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muscle fatigue is the inability to maintain force of contraction after prolonged activity what things can cause this?
-inadequate release of ca ions from SR, -depletion of creatine phosphate, -insufficient oxygen, - depletion of glycogen, -build up of lactic acid &ADP, -failure of motor neurons to release enough ACh
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what is oxygen needed for after exercise?
-convert lactic acid back into glycogen stores, -resynthesise creatine phosphate and ATP, -replace oxygen removed from myoglobin
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max tension/force of muscle is dependent on?
1) rate of nerve impulses at NMJ 2) amount of stretch before contraction 3) nutrient and oxygen availability 4)number of muscle fibers that are contracting.
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what results in a wave summation?
when additional ca ions are released from SR and levels of ca ions are still high from previous stimulus
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what is the distinguishing properties of red muscle fibers?
-high myoglobin content, - high numbers of mitochondria & is supplied by more blood capillaries.
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what is the distinguishing property of white muscle fibers?
low content of myoglobin.
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postrural muscles of the neck, back and legs have a high proportion of....
slow oxidative fibers
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muscles of shoulders and arms have a high proportion of...
fast glycolytic fibers
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leg muscles have large numbers of both....
slow oxidative fibers and fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers
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what are the skeletal muscle connective tissue?

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fascia ( irregular connective tissue. epimysium-outer most layer of dense irregular connective tissue, perimysium-same as epimysium but only surrounds 10-100 fibers and endomysium- mostly reticular fibers separates individual fibers

Card 3

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what neurons stimulate skeletal muscles to contract?

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Card 4

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what is dystrophin?

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Card 5

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what is DMD (duchenne muscular dystrophy)?

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