Multi-store Model of Memory + key studies

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1. What do the results of the 1966 study mean?

  • That information in both the STM and LTM is stored in a hierarchical way
  • That information in the STM is encoded acoustically which makes it difficult to remember similar sounding words and that information in the LTM is encoded semantically which makes it difficult to remember similar meaning words
  • That information in the STM is encoded semantically because they remembered more semantically similar words, information in the LTM is encoded acoustically because they remembered more acoustically similar words.
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2. What was Murdock's 1962 study, studying?

  • The primary/recency effect
  • H.M
  • Displacement
  • Amnesia

3. The participants of the 1966 study were then asked to recall the words either immediately or 20 minutes later, what did they find?

  • They could not conclude anything useful because the participants forgot all words in all three conditions
  • When participants recalled immediately they made the most mistakes with acoustically similar words, whereas after 20 minutes most mistakes were made with the semantically similar words.
  • When participants recalled immediately they remembered almost everything but mostly the semantically similar words, when recalling 20 minutes after participants remember more acoustically similar words
  • When participants recalled immediately they forgot everything, but when they recalled 20 minutes later they remembered more semantically similar words

4. Why does the primary/recency effect happen?

  • Because information at the beginning of the list has been transferred into the LTM due to rehearsal (primary) and information at the end of the list is still fresh in the STM (recency)
  • Because information at the beginning of the list is being refreshed by rehearsal and chunking (primary) and information at the end of the list is still fresh in the STM (recency)
  • Because there is enough capacity in the STM to remember the beginning words and the end words - we lose concentration in the middle of the list

5. What is the capacity and duration of the LTM?

  • Huge capacity, long duration (minutes-lifetime)
  • Huge capacity, short duration (2 seconds)
  • Small capacity, long duration (10 minutes approx)
  • Moderate capacity, short duration (18 seconds)

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