Multi-store Model

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Who created the Multi-store Model?
Atkinson and Shiffin 1968
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What is sensory memory?
The memory store that holds sensory information for brief periods of time; each of our senses have separate stores
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What is short-term memory?
A component of the multi-store model of memory which holds information for a short period of time if rehearsal is prevented
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What is long-term memory?
Our permanent store of knowledge, which has a more or less infinite capacity and can retain information for a life-time
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What type of case studies support that memory is vital for learning?
Brain damaged patients
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Describe sensory memory in terms of: coding, capacity and duration
Sense-specific, all sensory experiences, 1/4 second (iconic), 4 seconds (echoic)
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Describe short-term memory in terms of: coding, capacity and duration
Mainly auditory, 7+_ 2 chunks(Miller, chunking items can increase capacity) limited capacity of 5-9 items, 18-30 seconds
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Describe long-term memory in terms of: coding, capacity and duration
Mainly semantic, potentially unlimited, unlimited/life-time
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Name the 4 main features of the Multi-Store Model
1. There is only 1 store of each 2. Can't skip STM 3. The flow of information helps to retain information from the STM to LTM via rehearsal 4. There is no decisions or problem solving to complete in order to remember
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Define encoding
This is the input stage, it is the 'taking on board' of information. Sensory input---------> Code suitable for further processing
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Define storage
This is the process of storing the item in a suitable code in the memory
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Define retrieval
This concerns the way in which stored items are recovered, and the possible processes that might be invovled
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Give an example in your own words of something you encoded, stored and the retrieved
Information from school work/revision taking in/learning the information---> Revision--->Exams/Tests
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We often say we can't remember something or that we forget it. Explain this in terms of ESR
We have learn't something, but it hasn't been filed away for further usage. Or we might not have encoded it properly. Or we might have learn't it and stored the information but might not be accessible at that time e.g on a gameshow and you freeze
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Suggest and explain 1 claim and evidence that supports the Multi-Store Model
Glanzer & Cunitz, serial position experiment, participants are asked to listen/read words then see how many they can recall. This supports the MSM due to the dip in the graph showing 2 separate 'high points' - STM end of the list, LTM start
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Suggest and explain 1 claim and evidence that doesn't support the Multi-Store Model
Hyde & Jenkins, demonstrated incidental learning, participants were able to recall information later even though they had made no conscious effect to learn the material. Suggests that rehearsal is irrelevant, dependent on how they processed the items
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Explain the Brown and Peterson technique
A method used to measure the duration of STM by preventing rehearsal of information. It suggested that information held in STM is quickly lost if rehearsal is prevented. Supports MSM, information has to be rehearsed in STM to enter the LTM
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Give 2 strengths of the Multi-Store Model
1. There is evidence form both experiments and case studies to support the idea of 2 memory stores (HM and Wearing). 2. It is fertile, it has been a good starting point for the development of other models (WMW or LOP)
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Give 2 limitations of the Multi-Store Model
1. Model is too simplistic, there is likely to be more than one type of LTM e.g procedural, declarative or episodic. 2. Laboratory experiments, lacks ecological validity
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Card 2

Front

What is sensory memory?

Back

The memory store that holds sensory information for brief periods of time; each of our senses have separate stores

Card 3

Front

What is short-term memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is long-term memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of case studies support that memory is vital for learning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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