MSM

What is Atkinson and Shiffrins's (1968) Multi-store Model (MSM)?
A representation of how memory works in terms of 3 stores: sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten
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What is the Sensory Register?
Memory stores for our 5 senses, e.g. vision (iconic store) and hearing (echoic store). Coding in the iconic store = visual and in the echoic store = acoustic. Capacity = huge (millions of receptors) and information lasts for less than half a second
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How Does Information Transer From the Sensory Register to Short-term Memory?
Little of what goes into the sensory register passes further into the memory system - needs attention to be paid to it
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What is Short-term Memory (STM)?
Limited capacity and duration store. Duration: 18-30 seconds unless the information is rehearsed. Capacity: 5-9 items before some forgetting occurs. Coding: acoustic
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How Does Information Transfer From Short-term Memory (STM) to Long-term Memory (LTM)?
Maintenance rehearsal occurs when we repeat (rehearse) material to ourselves. We can keep information in STM as long as we rehearse it. If we rehearse it long enough, it passes into LTM
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What is Long-term Memory (LTM)?
A permanent memory store. When we want to recall materials stored in LTM it has to be transferred back to STM by a process called retrieval. Duration: up to a lifetime. Capacity: unlimited. Coding: semantic
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AO3: Supported by Research Showing STM and LTM are Different
Baddeley (1966) - mix up words that sound similar when using our STMs. We mix up words that have similar meanings when we use our LTMs. Coding in STM is acoustic - LTM it's semantic. Supports MSMs view - these 2 memory stores are separate/independent
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AO3: Evidence Suggests There is More Than One Type of STM
Shallice and Warrington (1970) studied KF (amnesia patient). STM for digits - poor when read aloud - better when he read the digits himself. MSM - one type of STM. KF study - there's 2 memory stores - visual/auditory. WMM = better - separate stores
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AO3: Only Explains One Type of Rehearsal
Craik and Watkins (1973) - 2 types of rehearsal - maintenance (described in MSM) and elaborative. Elaborative rehearsal - needed for long-term storage. Occurs when you link info to existing knowledge. Serious limitation - can't be explained by MSM
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AO3: Research Studies Supporting the MSM Use Artificial Materials
Researchers ask participants to recall digits/letters/words, e.g. Peterson and Peterson. Everyday life - form memories related to things, e.g. faces, names, facts. MSM lacks external validity. Research doesn't reflect how memory works in everday life
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AO3: MSM Oversimplifies LTM
Lots of research evidence - LTM isn't a unitary store. We have one LTM store for memories of facts about the world (semantic) and a different one for memories of how to ride a bike (episodic). MSM = limited - doesn't reflect different types of LTM
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Card 2

Front

What is the Sensory Register?

Back

Memory stores for our 5 senses, e.g. vision (iconic store) and hearing (echoic store). Coding in the iconic store = visual and in the echoic store = acoustic. Capacity = huge (millions of receptors) and information lasts for less than half a second

Card 3

Front

How Does Information Transer From the Sensory Register to Short-term Memory?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is Short-term Memory (STM)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How Does Information Transfer From Short-term Memory (STM) to Long-term Memory (LTM)?

Back

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