Mount Merapi Eruption

  • Created by: Kirsty
  • Created on: 07-06-14 04:59
When did the eruption occur?
25th/26th October to December 2010
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Where is Mount Merapi located?
border of Central Java and Yogyakarta (Indonesia)
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Nature of the plate boundary
Destructive plate boundary
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Type of volcano
Stratovolcano with active summit lava dome
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Characteristics of the eruption 1
Ash clouds which sent soot 6000 metres in the air and covered towns up to 150 miles away
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Characteristics of the eruption 2
Lava Flows
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Characteristics of the eruption 3
Heat clouds
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Characteristics of the eruption 4
Ejection of volcanic material
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Characteristics of the eruption 5
Visible flame and pyroclastic hot air flows
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How was Mount Merapi formed?
Subduction of Indo-Australian Plate underneath Eurasian one
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First eruption event
extrusion of lava from the summit crater and strong explosions November 4th to 5th
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How many times did Merapi erupt on the first day?
three times, spewing lava down its south and south eastern slopes
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How many volcanic seismic events and how many avalanche seismic events were recorded on the first eruption day?
222 volcanic seismic events and 454 avalanche seismic events
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What volcanic events occurred on the 26th of October?
Explosive events with volcanic bursts of ejected material, visible flame, pyroclastic hot air flows, 4 lava flows, 6 heat clouds
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Volcanic events of 29th of October
Lava ejection with hot ash clouds reported to be flowing 3 km down the slopes of the mountain and lasting 4 to 9 minutes. Ash fall reached Central Java and pyroclastic flows were said to have reached 3 main rivers in Central Java
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What was the state of Merapi in December 2010?
Alert level had been lowered to 'Caution Alert' which was level 3 on the alert system. Still threat of ash clouds and incandescent material and still a 2.5 km exclusion zone. Lowest alert since it began erupting, stopped erupting around this time
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What were the primary events of the eruption?
Extrusion of lava from the crater and strong explosions along with avalanche seismic events and hot ash clouds. Volcanic bombs and hot gases produced, pyroclastic flows.
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Secondary Hazard 1
Volcanic debris
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Secondary Hazard 2
Mud flows
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Secondary Hazard 3
Ash Clouds
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Secondary Hazard 4
Water pollution/contamination
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Secondary Hazard 5
Crops destroyed leading to lack of food
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Secondary Hazard 6
Spread of disease due to lack of sanitation in camps/refugee centres
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Social Impact 1
Schools up to 120 km west of Yogyakarta were closed because of volcanic hazards
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Social Impact 2
280,000 people placed across 7000 emergency shelters
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What happened to food prices?
They rose because of decreased production due to destruction of crops and lower fertility of soil due to tephra
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How did the volcanic eruption affect subsistence farmers?
Ash is difficult to get off crops and this can result in large amounts of wasted food which leads to an income decline
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Health affects of eruption
acute respiratory infection, hypertension, headache
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What problems did healthcare volunteers face?
People were moved from camp to camp so workers found it difficult to keep an eye on people and treat them
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How many people were evacuated by the 9th of November?
320,000 people
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What happened to some families during the evacuation?
Due to the chaos surrounding the mass exodus of people from the mountain slopes, children were separated from parents
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What effect did the 20km "danger zone" have on people?
Evacuees were forced into cramped temporary shlters
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How many homes were destroyed?
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Overall how many people were evacuated?
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How many people were killed?
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What happened to transport links?
They were disrupted because of lava flows, airports were closed, many international flights were cancelled/disrupted because of lava flows
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What affect did ash have on aid?
The ash hazards disrupted air traffic which meant that aid was slow to reach the country
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What affect did the eruption have on air quality?
Ash and acidic fumes polluted the air
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What positive impact did the ash have on the soil in the future?
The minerals in the ash will increase the fertility of the soil
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How much forested land was damaged?
867 hectares on the volcano's slopes
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What areas were damaged?
The Merapi National Park, community forests and the farms and plantations of local people
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What was the cost of material damages?
Rp 33 billion
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What was developed as a result of the volcanic eruption?
A warning system with 4 levels of alert to warn and prepare people
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What has aid from the eruption allowed to be built?
Dams and dikes to decrease the effects of flooding which have been known to occur afer an eruption. This will decrease the damage from secondary hazards.
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What did the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recover do?
Set up workshops to better prepare people for managing the eruption and to share information and experience related to early recovery needs of villages around the volcano
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What did the Indonesian Red Cross Chairman encourage?
The development of a disaster preparedness curriculum to assist in dealing with natural disasters through an ongoing training and education.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where is Mount Merapi located?


border of Central Java and Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

Card 3


Nature of the plate boundary


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Type of volcano


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
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