Mount Merapi Eruption

HideShow resource information
When did the eruption occur?
25th/26th October to December 2010
1 of 47
Where is Mount Merapi located?
border of Central Java and Yogyakarta (Indonesia)
2 of 47
Nature of the plate boundary
Destructive plate boundary
3 of 47
Type of volcano
Stratovolcano with active summit lava dome
4 of 47
5 of 47
Characteristics of the eruption 1
Ash clouds which sent soot 6000 metres in the air and covered towns up to 150 miles away
6 of 47
Characteristics of the eruption 2
Lava Flows
7 of 47
Characteristics of the eruption 3
Heat clouds
8 of 47
Characteristics of the eruption 4
Ejection of volcanic material
9 of 47
Characteristics of the eruption 5
Visible flame and pyroclastic hot air flows
10 of 47
How was Mount Merapi formed?
Subduction of Indo-Australian Plate underneath Eurasian one
11 of 47
First eruption event
extrusion of lava from the summit crater and strong explosions November 4th to 5th
12 of 47
How many times did Merapi erupt on the first day?
three times, spewing lava down its south and south eastern slopes
13 of 47
How many volcanic seismic events and how many avalanche seismic events were recorded on the first eruption day?
222 volcanic seismic events and 454 avalanche seismic events
14 of 47
What volcanic events occurred on the 26th of October?
Explosive events with volcanic bursts of ejected material, visible flame, pyroclastic hot air flows, 4 lava flows, 6 heat clouds
15 of 47
Volcanic events of 29th of October
Lava ejection with hot ash clouds reported to be flowing 3 km down the slopes of the mountain and lasting 4 to 9 minutes. Ash fall reached Central Java and pyroclastic flows were said to have reached 3 main rivers in Central Java
16 of 47
What was the state of Merapi in December 2010?
Alert level had been lowered to 'Caution Alert' which was level 3 on the alert system. Still threat of ash clouds and incandescent material and still a 2.5 km exclusion zone. Lowest alert since it began erupting, stopped erupting around this time
17 of 47
What were the primary events of the eruption?
Extrusion of lava from the crater and strong explosions along with avalanche seismic events and hot ash clouds. Volcanic bombs and hot gases produced, pyroclastic flows.
18 of 47
Secondary Hazard 1
Volcanic debris
19 of 47
Secondary Hazard 2
Mud flows
20 of 47
Secondary Hazard 3
Ash Clouds
21 of 47
Secondary Hazard 4
Water pollution/contamination
22 of 47
Secondary Hazard 5
Crops destroyed leading to lack of food
23 of 47
Secondary Hazard 6
Spread of disease due to lack of sanitation in camps/refugee centres
24 of 47
Social Impact 1
Schools up to 120 km west of Yogyakarta were closed because of volcanic hazards
25 of 47
Social Impact 2
280,000 people placed across 7000 emergency shelters
26 of 47
What happened to food prices?
They rose because of decreased production due to destruction of crops and lower fertility of soil due to tephra
27 of 47
How did the volcanic eruption affect subsistence farmers?
Ash is difficult to get off crops and this can result in large amounts of wasted food which leads to an income decline
28 of 47
Health affects of eruption
acute respiratory infection, hypertension, headache
29 of 47
What problems did healthcare volunteers face?
People were moved from camp to camp so workers found it difficult to keep an eye on people and treat them
30 of 47
How many people were evacuated by the 9th of November?
320,000 people
31 of 47
What happened to some families during the evacuation?
Due to the chaos surrounding the mass exodus of people from the mountain slopes, children were separated from parents
32 of 47
What effect did the 20km "danger zone" have on people?
Evacuees were forced into cramped temporary shlters
33 of 47
How many homes were destroyed?
34 of 47
Overall how many people were evacuated?
35 of 47
How many people were killed?
36 of 47
What happened to transport links?
They were disrupted because of lava flows, airports were closed, many international flights were cancelled/disrupted because of lava flows
37 of 47
What affect did ash have on aid?
The ash hazards disrupted air traffic which meant that aid was slow to reach the country
38 of 47
What affect did the eruption have on air quality?
Ash and acidic fumes polluted the air
39 of 47
What positive impact did the ash have on the soil in the future?
The minerals in the ash will increase the fertility of the soil
40 of 47
How much forested land was damaged?
867 hectares on the volcano's slopes
41 of 47
What areas were damaged?
The Merapi National Park, community forests and the farms and plantations of local people
42 of 47
What was the cost of material damages?
Rp 33 billion
43 of 47
What was developed as a result of the volcanic eruption?
A warning system with 4 levels of alert to warn and prepare people
44 of 47
What has aid from the eruption allowed to be built?
Dams and dikes to decrease the effects of flooding which have been known to occur afer an eruption. This will decrease the damage from secondary hazards.
45 of 47
What did the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recover do?
Set up workshops to better prepare people for managing the eruption and to share information and experience related to early recovery needs of villages around the volcano
46 of 47
What did the Indonesian Red Cross Chairman encourage?
The development of a disaster preparedness curriculum to assist in dealing with natural disasters through an ongoing training and education.
47 of 47

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where is Mount Merapi located?


border of Central Java and Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

Card 3


Nature of the plate boundary


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Type of volcano


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Plate tectonics resources »