Motor Control and Learning

  • Created by: LM
  • Created on: 23-05-18 22:11
Motor behaviour
Motor activity carried out through muscle contraction
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Motor equivalence
Same action can be achieved through executing different sequences of movements
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Motor task
The objective to be carried out by the motor behaviour
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Motor adaptability
The ability to accomplish the same motor task by adjusting the motor behaviour to different conditions
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Feedback
Information from the sensory system that indicated the status of a movement to the central nervous system
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Open loop system
All the information needed to initiate and carry out an action as planned is contained in the initial instructions to the effectors
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Closed loop system
During the course of action, feedback is compared against a standard or reference to enable an action to be carried out as planned
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EMG
The registration and interpretation of the electrical activity associated with the contraction of a skeletal muscle
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Motor unit
Motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates
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MUAP
Sum of the action potentials generated by all the fibres of a motor unit
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Maximal M-wave
Muscle electrically stimulated to produce largest possible response
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Perception
The process of obtaining information about the internal and/or external environment from sensory stimulation
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Sensation
Conscious feeling related to sensing
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Perceptual system
A system that acquires information and makes it available for action
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Brain
Split into forebrain, cerebellum, brainstem and corpus callosum.
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Forebrain
Consists of cerebrum and diencephalon
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Cerebrum Lobes
Frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal
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Vestibular system
Processes sensory information related to head position, spatial orientation and movement
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Basal ganglia location
In the cerebrum, within the forebrain
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Basal ganglia function
To make movements and prevent unwanted movements
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Role of proprioception
Movement, accuracy, onset of motor commands and coordination control
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Labyrinth
3 semicircular canals and 2 otolith organs
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Endolymph
Fluid that fills canals and enables us to sense movement
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Otolith
Calcium carbonate crystals
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Cristae ampullaris
Sensory organ where the hair cells are located
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Axial rotaton of head affects...
Effects lateral semicircular duct
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Flexion/extension of head affects...
Effects the anterior semicircular duct
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Lateral bending of head affects...
Effects posterior semicircular duct
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Merton's Servo Hypothesis
CNS controls movements only by adjusting the thresholds of tonic stretch refexes
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Phasic response
Responds to immediate change but not overall change
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Muscle synergy
A group of muscles connected by neural circuitry and act following a coordinated pattern. Reduces degrees of freedom.
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Equilibrium
If the sum of all forces and moments acting on the system is zero
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Stability
Resilience to change in response to a perturbation
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Centre of pressure
The point where the resultant GRF is applied
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Motor Skill
An activity or task that has a specific purpose or goal, and a degree of mastery in performing a certain task
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Learning
Change in the capability of a person to perform a skill that must be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance due to practice/experience
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Absolute error
Unsigned derivation from the target or criterion, representing magnitude of error.
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Constant error
Signed derivation from the target or criterion, representing the amount and direction of error and serves as a measure of performance bias
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Variable error
Represents the variability and/or consistency of performance
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Performance
Behavioural act of executing a skill at a specific time and in a specific situation
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Retention tests
Determine the level of persistence or permanence of the performance level achieved during practice
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Transfer tests
Assess the adaptability of performance changes
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Novel skill variation
Different takes on carrying out the same skill
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Transfer or learning
Influence of previous practice or performance of a skill on the learning of a new skill
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Fitts + Posner Model
3 stage model of learning including cognitive, associative and autonomous stages
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Similarity of components
Kinematic similarity, coordination tendencies, context
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Negative transfer
When context characteristics of new skill are similar but movement characteristics are different leading to negative effect on learning/performance of new skill.
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Generalised motor programme theory
Programs are not muscle specific since action goal achievement can be attained through a variety of movements
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Power law of practice
Describes negatively accelerating change in the rate of performance improvement in skill learning
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Practice specificity
Practice conditions that influence motor skill learning
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Contextual interference
Memory and performance disruption that results from performing multiple skills or skill variations within practice
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Blocked practice
Same type of practice each session
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Random practice
Totally random variety of types of practice in each session
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Serial practice
Set order of different types of practice in each session, which does not change between sessions
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Augmented feedback
Information about performing a skill that adds to sensory information and comes from an external source
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KP Feedback
Knowledge of results
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KP Feedback
Knowledge of performance
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Massed practice
Amount of rest between trials is short
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Distributed practice
Amount of rest between trials is long
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Performance based bandwiths
Only giving feedback when outside of desired performance bandwiths
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Self selected frequency
Only giving feedback when person asks for it
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Average augmented feedback
Giving a listing of performance information after a certain number of trials
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Overlearning
Practice that continues beyond the amount needed to achieve a certain performance criterion- appears to be a diminishing point of return.
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Complexity
Number of parts or components and the amount of information
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Organisation
The relationships among the components of the skill
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Fractionisation
Practicing each arm or leg separately before putting them together
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Segmentation
Separating the skills into parts and then practicing each part one after another
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Simplification
Reducing the difficulty of the specific parts or features of the skill
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Alpha motor neurons
Innervate skeletal muscle fibres to contract, providing force
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Gamma motor neurons
Innervate intrafusal fibres, so the muscle spindle contracts slighty and remains response under a range of muscle lengths
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Same action can be achieved through executing different sequences of movements

Back

Motor equivalence

Card 3

Front

The objective to be carried out by the motor behaviour

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The ability to accomplish the same motor task by adjusting the motor behaviour to different conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Information from the sensory system that indicated the status of a movement to the central nervous system

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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