Moral argument

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Aquinas' fourth way
different degrees of perfect exist and they can only exist if something wholly perfect exists (God is this perfect being)
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Weaknesses of Aquinas' fourth way
1) things are surely either perfect or not? 2) why does perfection require God as a cause?
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Hasting Rashdall
1) an absolutely perfect moral ideal which exists in our minds come from perfect moral law 2) this perfect moral law can only exist in an absolute mind and this is the mind of God
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Weaknesses of Hasting Rashdall's argument
1) how do we know 'ideal' in our heads is perfect? 2) why can a perfect moral law not be simple enough to exist in human minds? 3) we can agree on moral principles but this does not make them objective or binding
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Immanuel Kant's moral argument
1) happiness is desire of all people and morality is duty 2) Summum Bonum = these two together 3) Summum Bonum is too hard to achieve in this life 4) if it ought to be sought then we should propose 2 things: a God and an after life
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More information on Kant
1) Kant argues God's existence is beyond human knowledge so attempts such as the CA and OA cannot succeed 2) through rational reasoning we end up having to put God forward as explanation for morality
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Weaknesses of Kant's argument
1) not proof in itself 2) perhaps Summum Bonum is not achievable 3) could duty and happiness be fulfilled in this life? 4) Kant's God is not specifically Christian God
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Bertrand Russell's criticisms
1) moral law either comes from God or it does not 2) if it does = arbitrary, if not = external standard 3) God is either arbitrary or non-ultimate but both are not worthy of worship
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Albert Camus' criticisms
1) either join doctor and fight plague or follow priest and accept it 2) joining doctor = humanitarian but fight God who sent it 3) if humanitarianism is right theism is wrong (weakness: Irenaean theodicy)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1) things are surely either perfect or not? 2) why does perfection require God as a cause?

Back

Weaknesses of Aquinas' fourth way

Card 3

Front

1) an absolutely perfect moral ideal which exists in our minds come from perfect moral law 2) this perfect moral law can only exist in an absolute mind and this is the mind of God

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1) how do we know 'ideal' in our heads is perfect? 2) why can a perfect moral law not be simple enough to exist in human minds? 3) we can agree on moral principles but this does not make them objective or binding

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) happiness is desire of all people and morality is duty 2) Summum Bonum = these two together 3) Summum Bonum is too hard to achieve in this life 4) if it ought to be sought then we should propose 2 things: a God and an after life

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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