mood disorders

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 06-06-13 18:28
Symptoms of unipolar deppression?
deppressed most of the day, reccurent thoughts of death, insomnia, loss of energy, signifigant weight loss/gain, feelings of worthlessness,
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symptoms of bipolar deppression?
unsusual talkitivness, distractibility, less than usual amount of sleep needed, increase in activitiy level, excessive involvment in pleasurable activities, inflated self esteem - belief one has special abilities, talents or powers.
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what is involved in family studies?
a proband is identified and information regarding close family members of the person with the mood disorder is gathered.
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what did winikour et als study show?
rate of unipolar deppression was 10.4% in first degree relatives of the proband compared with 4.9% of controls relatives. children of deprressed parents seem at risk of developing depresion.
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Evaluation of family studies?
pychological factors such as being reared by ill relatives cannot rule out environmental factors. children are not only inheriting genes but also exposed to stressful family environments.
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Outline Mcguffin et als study
obtained a sample of 214 twin pairs through probands who had been treated with depresion.
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what did mcguffin find?
the concordance rate for unipolar deppression was 46% for MZ twins and 20% for DZ twins both substantially higher than the depression rate in general population.
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Evaluation of twin studies
cannot rule out the environment - twins reared in similar environment. Adoption studies would be more apropriate as they are both nature and nurture but there is veryllimited sample to obtain in this area of study.
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what is the neurochemical explanation?
neurotransmitter pathways link the limbic system to other parts of the brain, the endocrine and autonomic system. in the synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters are only active for short time before they are destroyed/reabsorbed by the cell - 'reuptake'
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what drugs helped come up with the neurochemical explanation?
Tricyclic - block the synaptic reuptake of amnies into the presynaptic neurons - increasing availability. based of the effects of these drugs it was claimed depresion resulted from insufficiency of neurotransmiters while mania results from too much.
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Evaluation of Neurochemical explanation?
antidepressants increased levels of neurotransmitters but delayed affect of relieving symptoms. antidepressant meds were found that did not have the same effects.
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what three components was becks dysfunctional thinking explanation based upon?
The cognitive triard, faulty information processing, negative self schemas.
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what did the negative cognitive triad involve?
the automatic negative cognitions that idividuals prone to depression emphasise about themselves, the world and the future.
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What did faulty information processing involve?
info processing is cognitivley biased, this biased way of thinking ensures the individuals are prone to becoming depresed, once depresed will have difficulty in getting better unless cognitions change.
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what did negative self-schema involve?
if our self schemas contain negative beliefs, the info we take in will be that which confirms these negative beliefs and will ignore evidence to the contrary. the negative beliefs most likely begin in childhood due to repeated critisism or rejection.
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evaluation of cognitive explanations?
is it difficult to see weather negative thinking plays a role in depression. there is only mixed evidence for biased info processing in depressed individuals.
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what is cognitive behavioural therapy? (CBT)
when people think negitivley, they will feel and act depresed and therefore the therapy attempts to identify the negative beliefs and alter dysfunctional behaviours.
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What features are included in CBT?
Behavioural activation, Graded task asignments, Thought catching of automatic negative thoughts.
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What is behavioural activation?
The client and therapist draw up a list of activities the client used to find enjoyable. they then deal with any obstacles and rekindle them. engagement in such activities should result in lifitng mood.
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What is graded task asignments?
Clients are helped to engage in succsesivley more demanding but rewarding activities.
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What is Thought-catching of 'automatic negative thoughts'
clients are tought to notice the assosiation between thoughts and feelings and note this down e.g. experience - 'katie wouldn't come out' negative thought'she doesnt like me' challenge to thought'kate was busy there is no evidence she doesnt like me'
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how do drugs treat mood disorders?
work at the synapse to return levels of neurotransmitters to normal e.g. MAOIs - helps break down neurotransmitters neurodrenaline, dopamine and serationin. - multiple side affects, some of which are dangerous.
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evaluation of drugs?
The action of antidepressants is not yet fully understood, due to side affects and long period of time before they kick in clients often discontinue before effect is felt. some individuals dont respond to drugs alone.
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What is electroconvulsive therapy?
electrical simulation of the brain so a seizure is enduced, after treatment patient is confused and has headache. Nobler - linked ECT to bloodflow in frontal temporal regions as found ECT was generally assosiated reduction in bloodflow in this area
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Evaluation of ECT
viewed as unethical particularly when administered against patients will, affects short term memory
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symptoms of bipolar deppression?

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unsusual talkitivness, distractibility, less than usual amount of sleep needed, increase in activitiy level, excessive involvment in pleasurable activities, inflated self esteem - belief one has special abilities, talents or powers.

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what is involved in family studies?

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what did winikour et als study show?

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