Monomers, Polymers, Carbohydrates

  • Created by: AminA1000
  • Created on: 26-10-18 15:32
What is a monomer
small soluble molecules from which larger molecules are made
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What is a polymer
Molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together
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what is a condensation reaction
joins two molecules together with the formation of a chemical bond and involves the elimination of a molecule of water.
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what is a hydrolysis reaction
breaks a chemical bond between two molecules and involves the use of a water molecule.
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what are monosaccharides
the monomers from which larger carbohydrates are made.
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name three monosaccharides
glucose, galactose, fructose
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what is a disaccharide
formed by condensation of two monosaccharides
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maltose=
glucose+glucose
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lactose=
glucose+galactose
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sucrose=
glucose+fructose
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name three polysaccharides + how they are made
formed by condensation reaction of many glucose units- glycogen, starch, cellulose
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describe the structure of starch
polysaccharide made of alpha glucose, joined by glycosidic bonds
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How is the structure of starch related to its function?
branched- large SA for hydrolysation releasing glucose for respiration, helical-compact, long-so cannot leave cell, insoluble- doesn't affect the water potential
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where is glycogen found
muscle cells and liver cells
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describe structure of glycogen
polysaccharide made of alpha glucose, joined by glycosidic bonds
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how is glycogen adapted to its function
HIGHLY BRANCHED- large SA for rapid hydrolysation, insoluble- doesn't affect the wp. long molecule- doesn't leave helical-compact
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describe the structure of cellulose
polysaccharide made of beta glucose joined by glycosidic bonds
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where is cellulose found
plant cell wall
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how is structure if cellulose related to its function
long, straight, unbranched chains, joined together by MANY hydrogen bonds. Forms MICROFIBRYLLS to provide strength and rigidity in cell wall.
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Biochemical food test for starch
Iodine test- Add iodine in potassium iodide to sample. If starch is present= colour change from ORANGE to BLUE/BLACK
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Biochemical food test for reducing sugars
Benedicts test- Add Benedict's solution to sample, heat, positive result shows colour change from blue to red
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Biochemical food test for non-reducing sugars. (sucrose!!!)
Add Benedict's solution to sample, heat, positive result STAYS BLUE. Get new sample, heat with HCL acid to BREAK GLYCOSIDIC BONDS, neutralise using NAHC03 , add Benedict's , heat, If sucrose is present colour changes from blue to red
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a polymer

Back

Molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together

Card 3

Front

what is a condensation reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a hydrolysis reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are monosaccharides

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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