Monoclonal Antibodies

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  • Created by: Christie
  • Created on: 14-05-13 17:20
What are monoclonal antibodies? and What produces them?
Identical antibodies and B-lymphocytes
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Why is it hard to make lots of identical copies of B-lymphocytes?
They don't divide very easily
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What divides lots but doesn't produce antibodies?
Tumor cells
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What is a hybridoma made up of?
Tumor cells and B-lymphocytes fused together
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Why are hybridoma cells useful?
Because they divide really quickly to produce lots of identical antibodies called monoclonal antibodies
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Decribe the steps to creating a hybridoma and therefore many monoclonal antibodies
Inject a mouse with chosen antigen. Take B-lymphocyte from mouse. Fuse B-lymphocyte with tumor cells from lab. This creates a hybridoma. This divides quickly to produce lots of monoclonal antibodies.
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How are monoclonal antibodies used in pregnancy tests?
There is a hormone which women only produce when they're pregnant. The ***** you wee on has antibodies to the hormone with blue beads attached. The test ***** has some more antibodies to the hormone stuck onto it.
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How does it indicate if you are pregnant/nnot pregnant?
Pregnant: hormone binds with antibodies on the blue beads and urine moves up the stick carrying the hormone and beads. Turning the ***** blue. Not pregnant: urine still moves up the stick carrying the blue beads but there's nothing to stick them
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What antigens do cancer cells have that aren't found on normal body cells?
tumour markers
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How are monoclonal antibodies used to diagnose cancer?
Antibodies are labelled with a radioactive element. Then they're given to the patient through a drip and they travel around the blood. When antibodies meet cancer cells they bind to the tumour markers. Picture is taken, cancer appears as bright spot.
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to target drugs to cancer cells?
Anti-cancer drug is attached to monoclonal antibodies. Given through a drip. Antibodies target specific cells. Drugs kill cancer calls but doesn't kill nomal body cells around cancer cells. Lower side effects than using radiotherapy.
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How can they be used to find blood clots?
When blood clots proteins join together to form a solid mesh. Monoclonal antibodies have been made to bind to these. Attach a radioactive element to the antibodies. Inject them, take a picture and it will show up as a bright spot.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is it hard to make lots of identical copies of B-lymphocytes?

Back

They don't divide very easily

Card 3

Front

What divides lots but doesn't produce antibodies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a hybridoma made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are hybridoma cells useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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