Monoamines - dopamine

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List the monoamine neurotransmitters
Dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-HT,
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What is a monoamine neurotransitter?
neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain
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List the main dopaminergic pathways in the brain
Nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular, retina, olfactory tubercule.
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Some particuarly important processes that dopamine is needed for
movment control (nigrostriatal), emotion (mesocortical), reward (mesolimbic), addiction (mesolimbic)
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What is dopamine formed from?
Tyrosine.
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What enzyme acts on tyrosine and what does it make? Draw it.
Tyrosine hydroxylase, makes L dopa.
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What happens to L DOPA then
dopa decarboxylase acts to make dopamine
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Two enzymes that can metabolise dopamine
Monoamine oxidase a/b, or Catechol-o-methyltransferase. in either order
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If MOAa acts first what do you get
DOPAC and then homovanillic acid
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If COMT acts first what do you get
3-methoxy-tyramine, into homovanillic acid
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How is dopamine take up into the post synaptic terminal
DAT
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What is the DAT transporter like
Na+/Cl- dependant symporter.
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How many transmembrane segements does it have, how many AAs
12, 617
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Examples of DAT blockers
Benzotropine, cocaine, methylphenidate, GBR12909
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What is the VMAT2 transporter like
H+ dependant vesicular membrane transporter.
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transmembrane segments and amino acids
12, 742
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blockers of the VMAT2
reserpine, tetrabenzine
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Which Dopamine receptors are in the D1 family
D1 and D5.
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What is the intracellular effect of activating D1 like receptors
Gs coupled, results in an increase in cAMP.
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What pathways are D1 receptors found in
cortex, for arousal and mood, limbic, for emotion, striatum for motor control.
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What D recetpors are D2 like
D2, D3, D4.
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What is the intracellular effect of D2 family receptor activation
Gi coupled. decrease cAMP, and or increase IP2, increase K, decrease calcium
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What is apomorphine, what receptors does it prefer
an agonist at D receptors, greater affinity for D2 family. Reduces firing rate when acting presynaptically
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bromocriptine is what kind of drug at D receptors
a partial agonist at D1 like, a full agonist at D2like
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An antagonist with medium affinity for all D receptors
clozapine.
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Two antagonists that have no affinity for D1, but high affinity for D2 like
Spiperone, Sulpiride
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An antagonist that has no affinity for D2 but high affinity for D1
skf38393
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What does cocaine do
inhibits dopamine uptake, used as a stimulant
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Methylpenidate, amphetamine
Displaces DA from vesicles, Increases DA release, Inhibits uptake, MAO inhibitor. Use as a stimulant and can induce psychosis
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Four dopamine agonists
Apomorphine, ropinirole, rotigotine, pramipexole - treat parkinsons or restless leg
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Dopamine antagonists
Phenothiazines Butyrophenones Spiperone Sulpiride Clozapine, treat schizophrenia
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What pathway degrades in parkinsons
nigrostriatal pathway
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what pathway is important in addiction and drug dependance
mesolimbic pathway
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What pathway is important in psychosis and ADHD
mesocortical
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What does the tuberoinfundibular pathway do
inhibits prolactin release - dopain antgaonists cause gynacomastia
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Card 2

Front

What is a monoamine neurotransitter?

Back

neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain

Card 3

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List the main dopaminergic pathways in the brain

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Some particuarly important processes that dopamine is needed for

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Card 5

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What is dopamine formed from?

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