Monitoring the Human Body

H

Equation for burning fossil fuels?
fossil fuel + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + heat and light
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Equation for aerobic respiration?
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy available for cells to use
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Equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose = lactic acid + energy available for cells to use
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Where are the enzymes which promote the biochemical changes (anaerobic) are found?
Cytoplasm
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Where do the biochemical changes that occur in aerobic respiration take place?
Mitochondria
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Respiration provides the energy in the form of?
ATP
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What life processes require energy?
Muscle contraction, swimming of sperm, nerve impulse transmission and the separation of chromosomes during nuclear division, the uptake and loss of ions and other particles and active transport
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ATP breaks down to form ADP and AMP. One form of AMP is an important messenger in the body, what does it activate?
Enzymes. These enzymes make chemical change more effective
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Substrates, products and number of molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose of anaerobic respiration?
Substrate: glucose Product: lactic acid Quantity of energy: 2
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Substrates, products and number of molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose of aerobic respiration?
Substrates: glucose and oxygen Products: carbon dioxide and water Quantity of energy: 38
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What is the oxygen debt?
After extensive exercise the individual still breathes heavy to get extra oxygen into the body to oxidise the lactic acid formed and to pay back the oxygen debt.
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How can you monitor the activity on the body?
Measure the breathing rate, heart rate, blood oxygen concentration and blood lactic acid concentration
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What are the four muscular chambers called in the heart?
Two atria (atrium) and two ventricles
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The atrium and ventricle are separated by?
Atrioventricular valve
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What are the two functions of the heart?
They are to pump blood to and from the lungs to enable oxygen to be picked up and to excrete carbon dioxide- pulmonary circuit, and to and from the body to meet the needs of the cells in body tissues- the systematic circuit
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What is the pulmonary circuit powered by?
The cardiac muscle on the right hand side of the heart. The left hand side provides the pressure needed to push the blood around the systematic circuit
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What are the two phases of the cardiac cycle?
Systole (contract) and diastole (relax). There is also atrial systole
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The timing of the cardiac cycle is controlled by?
The SAN, it acts as a pacemaker
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Name all the fibres in the heart.
AVN, Purkyne fibres and the Bundle of His
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Equation for cardiac output
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume (volume per unit time)
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What are the types of nerves which the heart receives impulses from?
The vagus (parasympathetic nerve) delivers impulses to the SAN and AVN, and the sympathetic nerve which delivers impulses to many areas of the hearts walls
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What hormone released by the adrenal glands has an increased effect on the heart rate?
Adrenaline
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What do the chemorecepetors monitor?
Concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in the blood
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What do the baroreceptors register?
They register the changes in the walls of blood vessels caused by change in blood pressure
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The cardiovascular centre is involved in regulating heart activity and blood pressure. What are the two regions within this?
The cardio-acceleratory centre, linked to the heart by the sympathetic nervous system, and the cardio-inhibitory centre, linked to the heart by the parasympathetic nervous system
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What are pocket valves?
These are formed by extensions of the inner wall of a vein. Any blood that attempts to flow back along a vein 'fills the pockets' and the valve cusps are pushed together closing off the lumen of the vein. Prevents back flow
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Name the structures of the ventilation system.
Trachea, lungs, ribs, diaphragm, nasal passage, mouth cavity, bronchi and bronchioles
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Why do the lungs provide an efficient gas exchange surface?
It has a very large surface area, barriers are very thin, permeable to the gases involved and moist, and about 80% of the total alveolar surface is in contact with a pulmonary capillary, diffusion gradient and close to a transport system
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How is oxygen transported?
It is transported in the red blood cells, haemoglobin present in the blood cell will combine with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin. This is reversible. haemoglobin + 4 molecules of oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin
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How are nutrients transported?
Dissolved nutrients such as blood glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol are added to the bloodstream by diffusion, facilitated diffusion or active transport
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Name three ways in which carbon dioxide is transported.
5% dissolves in the blood plasma, 10% leaves the plasma to enter red blood cells where it combines with haemoglobin to form carbahaemoglobin and 85% diffuses into red blood cells where it combines with water to form carbonic acid
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Name recreational drugs which act as a depressant.
Alcohol, barbiturates, cannabis
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Name recreational drugs which act as a stimulant.
Amphetamines, amyl nitrate, cocaine, khat
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Name recreational drugs which act as a hallucinogenic.
Ecstasy and THC
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Name recreational drugs which act as a analgesic.
Heroin and methadone
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Name performance enhancing drugs which act as a anabolic steriod.
Nandrolone, testosterone and trenbolone
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What blood sample techniques can be used to detect the presence of drugs and their concentration?
Gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, UV absorption and mass spectrometry
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Define antigen.
Molecules which a cell recognises as foreign. They initiate a immune response.
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Define antibody.
It is a protein produced in response to an antigen
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Define enzyme.
It is a protein which alters the rate of a chemical change
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What test can be carried out to test a patient to see whether they have a disease?
ELISA test
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What is a electrocardiogram?
It is a device that produces a graphical representation of the hearts activity
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Equation for vital capacity.
Vital capacity = tidal volume + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve
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Define tidal volume.
The volume of air that is ventilated during either the inspiratory or the expiratory phase of each breathing cycle
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Define inspiratory reserve volume.
The volume of the extra air that can be inspired at the end of tidal inspiration
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Define expiratory reserve volume.
The volume of the extra air that can be expired at the end of tidal expiration
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Define inspiratory capacity.
Maximum volume of air that can be inspired following tidal expiration
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Define vital capacity.
Maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration
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Define residual volume.
The volume of gas left in the lungs after maximum expiration
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What is peak flow used to measure?
It is used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. This is the maximum flow of air that can be forced out of the lungs
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What is the ideal body temperature?
37 degrees (36.5-37.2 degrees)
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Where are the places on the body where you can take a pulse?
Temporal (head), carotid (neck), apical (chest), brachial (upper arm), radial and ulnar (wrist)
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What is a sphygmomanometer used to measure?
It is used to measure blood pressure. It can be manual or electronic
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Define breathing rate.
The number of inhalations and exhalations completed in one minute
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What is a spirometer used to measure?
Tidal volume, vital capacity and other lung volumes and capacities
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Name 5 locations where temperature can be taken from.
Mouth, rectum, arm pit, forehead and tympanic membrane (at the inner end of the external ear canal)
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What can be used to measure a persons temperature?
Mercury thermometer, electronic thermometer, disposable temperature-sensitive plastic strips and tympanic infrared (digital)
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How is blood-glucose concentration controlled?
An increase in blood glucose is registered in the B-cells of the pancreas, triggering a release of insulin. Insulin travels in the bloodstream to the liver where glucose is converted to glycogen, making blood-glucose concentration levels fall
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What is type 1 diabetes?
It is the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin.
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What is type 2 diabetes?
Impaired secretion of insulin, it is failing to produce enough to manage control and a failure of the tissues to respond to insulin in the normal way.
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What is a Clinistrip?
They are a strip with enzymes fixed to them. The blood drop is placed and then an enzyme controlled reaction occurs. Glucose is converted into products which bring around a colour change, the colour is compared to work out the glucose concentration
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What is a glucose meter?
It is a device which takes clinistrips and reads and presents data on the concentration of glucose in the blood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Equation for aerobic respiration?

Back

glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy available for cells to use

Card 3

Front

Equation for anaerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where are the enzymes which promote the biochemical changes (anaerobic) are found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do the biochemical changes that occur in aerobic respiration take place?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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