Monamines part 2

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the two major noradrenergic nuclei
locus coeruleus, caudal raphe nuclei
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Describe the locus coeruleus projections
project to the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system. also back to the cerebellum
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Describe the projection of the caudal raphe nuclei
ascend to the amygdala and descend through the spinal cord
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What are these two nuclei involved in
arousal and mood
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How is noradrenaline formed
Dopamine B hydroxylase acts on dopamine to form noradrenaline
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How is noradrenaline metabolised
COMT and MAOa, in either order
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if COMT acts first what do you get
normetanephrine, and then vaillylmandelic acid, secreted in urine.
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if MAOa acts first what do you get
dihydroxymadelic acid,then vanillymandelic acid
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How does noradrenaline get back into the terminal
NET
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What is the NET transporter like
Na, Cl- dependant symporter. 12 TMD, 620 amino acids.
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Blockers of the NET
Nisoxetine, desipramine, atomoxetine, cocaine.
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How is noradrenaline taken into the vesicle
VMAT2
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The types of adrenergic receptors
a1, a2, b1, b2.
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What is the presynaptic effect of a1 receptor activation
depolarisation and burst firing,
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What is the presynaptic effect of a2 receptor activation
Inhibit transmitter release Inhibit voltage dependent Calcium channels Inhibit adenylate cyclase
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What is the POST synaptic action of A1 receptor activcation
activate PLC Increase IP3 and DAG, by Gq/11 coupling.
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What is the post synaptic action of A2 binding
iInhibit adenylate cyclase Activate K+ channels ↑K+ efflux, by Gi/go coupling
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Post synaptic effect of B1 and B2 binding.
Activate adenylate cyclase ↑cAMP by Gs coupling
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Drugs that displace NA and reduce NA uptake
amphetamines and methylphenidate.
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How does cocaine affect noradrenaline
inhibits NET transporter.
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Noradrenaline agonists
isoprenaline, salbutamol, phenylephrine, clonidine
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antagonists at NA receptors
Phentolamine. Prazocin, Yohimbine, practolol, butoxamine
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SEROTONIN - What's it's distribution in the CNS like
it resembles NA
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Principle serotonergic nuclei
rostral and caudal raphe nuclei. Sleep, wakefullness, mood, hallucinations, behaviour, feeding.
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How is serotonin formed
from Tryptophan, catalyised to 5 hydroxytryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase.
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What then acts on 5 hydroxytryptophan
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase AADC. this makes 5-hydroxytryptamine.
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How is 5-HT broken down
by MAOIa, into 5-HIAA
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How is 5-HT transported back into the terminal
SERT
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How many Serotonin receptors are there
11, 1a-7
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Which one is the odd one out
5HT-3, it's a ligand gated cation channel, not a GPCR
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What are 5ht-1 coupled to
Gi/go decrease camp
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what are 5ht-2 coupled to
gq/g11 ip3 increase, ca2 increase
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two antagonists at the 5ht3 receptor.
ondansetron, tropisetron, used as antiemetics and anxiolytics.
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agonist at the 1d recetpor
Sumatriptan - used for migraine
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Fenfluramine
Was used as an anti obesity drug, it increase 5ht release to promote fullness.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the locus coeruleus projections

Back

project to the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system. also back to the cerebellum

Card 3

Front

Describe the projection of the caudal raphe nuclei

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are these two nuclei involved in

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is noradrenaline formed

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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