Molecules, Blood & Gas Exchange (F221)

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Differential Stain
e.g. Leishman's stain. Makes some structures appear darker or different in colour from other structures. In a normal blood sample the nuclei of the leucocytes will be stained purple, allowing leucocytes to be identified by the shape of the nucleus
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Erythrocytes
red blood cells; biconcave discs; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
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Leucocytes
general term for white blood cells
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Neutrophils
small granules in the cytoplasm; engulf microorganisms by phagocytosis
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Lymphocytes
large, dark-stained nucleus, surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm. 2 kinds: B and T lymphocytes.
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Monocytes
largest leucocyte. large, bean-shaped nucleus and clear cytoplasm. spend 2-3 days in circulatory system.
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Macrophages
monocytes that have entered the tissues. engulf microorganisms and other foreign material
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Platelets
fragments of giant cells called megakaryocytes. involved in blood clotting.
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Micrometre
measurement used for biological structures. it is 1/1000th of a mm.
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Eukaryotic Cell
cell with a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
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Condensation Reaction
reaction in which 2 molecules are joined together by removing a H atom from one molecule and an OH from the other. Key type of anabolic or 'building up' reaction.
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Primary Structure
protein structure. the number and sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
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Secondary Structure
amino acid chain is coiled into alpha-helix or folded into beta-pleated sheets. shape held by H bonds between the O atoms and the H atoms around peptide bonds.
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Tertiary Structure
polypeptide is coiled and folded into a specific shape held by bonds between the R groups. 4 types of bonds: hydrogen, hydrophobic interactions, ionic & disulphide.
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Quaternary Structure
functional protein is made up of more than one polypeptide chain. chains are held together by bonds between R groups.
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Card 2

Front

red blood cells; biconcave discs; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

Back

Erythrocytes

Card 3

Front

general term for white blood cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

small granules in the cytoplasm; engulf microorganisms by phagocytosis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

large, dark-stained nucleus, surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm. 2 kinds: B and T lymphocytes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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