Molecular Biology

  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 10-03-17 08:28
what are telomeres?
specialized DNA sequences at the end of linear chromosomes
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what do telomeres do?
maintain chromosome integrity, stop any DNA being lost
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what are the genes that every cell has?
housekeeping nuclei
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how many protein coding genes in the human genome are there in each somatic cell nucleus?
2 copies of 21,000 protein coding genes
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what is the centromere used for?
attaching the spindle to in meiosis/mitosis
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what microtubules does the centromere contain?
kinetochore MTs
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what are telemores maintained by?
the enzyme telomerase
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how many protein coding gemes does the E.coli chromosome have?
4298
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do genomes get bigger or smaller the more complex an organism is?
bigger, larger genome for more complex
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what part of DNA is removed?
introns
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whta do more complex organisms have larger in their genome?
larger introns
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how much of the human genome is made up of cellular protein-coding DNA?
1.5%
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what happens to gene density as the organism becomes more complex?
gene denisty decreases
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what is the genome?
an entire DNA sequence of the chromosomes in a cell nucleus
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what is the ENCODE project helping to decipher?
transcriptional control elements
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what process do bacteria not have?
gamete forming process, they are haploid
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why are bacteria used in molecular genetics?
rapid growth rate, grows in simple liquid and solid agar, isolation straightforward
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what are mutant bacteria that cannot synthesize essential nutrients called?
auxotrophs
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what does RNA polymerase III code for?
transcribes all RNA genes, ribsomoal RNA
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what does the donor strain contain that allows genetic exchange between bac?
fertility factor (grows a bridge)
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what does the fertility factor contain?
oriT (origin of transfer): DNA seq where transfer begins, tra genes: encode componesnts of transfer machinery eg F pilus proteins
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how many bases is Fertility Factor circular DNA molecule?
100kb
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what induces the trascription of the lac operon?
build up of lactose
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what is removed from the operator when the transcription is induced?
the repressor
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what is lacotse broken down into?
glucose and galactose
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what is the enzyme that breaks lactose down?
B-galactosidase
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what binds to the lac repressor to cause it to dissociate from the operator?
lactose
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how is the lac operon transcription inhibted when lots of glucose is present?
inactivating the RNA polymerase co-factor CAP protein
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what is the name for stopping transcriptional control mechanisms?
feedback inhibition
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what is the name given to DNA exchange between bac using the F pilus bridge?
Conjugation
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What RNA polymerase codes protein coding genes + a few non-pro coding genes?
2
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what does the antennapedia transcription factor promote the development of?
antennae
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what is the antennapedia mutant different?
it has legs instead of antennae
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who said that errors are rare but can be fatal?
Joseph Meerek
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what end is the DNA extended from?
3' sugar hydroxyl end
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what is a bacteriaphage?
viruses that infect and replicate in bacteria
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what does DNA helicase do?
DNA scissors, separates the paired strands of DNA
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the lagging strand gives what kind of DNA replication? what does it produce?
discontinuous, okazaki fragments
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what enzyme extends the RNA primer?
DNA primase
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What do single stranded binding proteins do?
stop the DNA from binding again
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what is DNA polymerase removed by?
Ribonuclease H
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what is the gap filled with once DNA polymerase is removed?
DNA polymerase
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what links the okazaki fragments?
DNA ligase
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what shows colinearity in
between bases in DNA + RNA and sequence of aa's in protein product
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what is transcription?
the formation of an RNA molecule
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Differences in RNA?
Uracil instead of thymine, ribose sugar
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transcription is iniated to what binding to what?
RNA polymerase binding to the promoter
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what is the transcription rate limited by?
the frequency of transcription initiation
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what is the direction of DNA?
5' to 3'
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what is termination dictated by?
the location of specific terminator signals in DNA
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3 phases of eukaryotic gene transcription?
initiation, elongation and termination
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what is spliced out?
introns = interruptions
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where does transcription + RNA processig occur?
in the nucleus
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what is RNA processing include?
splicing, capping and adenylation
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where does translation and protein mods happen?
in the cytoplasm
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how are circular bacteria chromosomes replicated?
in a bidirectional fashion
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what does a complementation test show?
whether 2 mutations with similar phenotypes are in the same or different genes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what do telomeres do?

Back

maintain chromosome integrity, stop any DNA being lost

Card 3

Front

what are the genes that every cell has?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how many protein coding genes in the human genome are there in each somatic cell nucleus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the centromere used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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