Module 4 Respiration

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ATP
A phosphorylated nucleotide that is the universal energy currency
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Anabolic reactions
Biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones
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Catabolic reactions
Larger molecules are hydrolysed to produced smaller molecules
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons
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Reduction
Gain of electrons
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Glycolysis
A metabolic pathway where each glucose molecule is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate. It occurs in the cytoplasm and is common to aerobic and anaerobic respiration
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Hydrolysis
The breaking down of large molecule to smaller ones by the addition of water
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Mitochondria
Site of link reaction, krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation- the aerobic stages of respiration
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Link reaction
Converts pyruvate to acetate. NAD is reduced
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Krebs cycle
Oxidises acetate to carbon dioxide. NAD and FAD are reduced. ATP is made by substrate-level phosphorylation
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Oxidative phosphoryaltion
The formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP in the presence of oxygen, which is the final electron acceptor
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Chemiosmosis
The diffusion of ions through a parially permeable membrae. It relates specifically to the flow of H+ across a membrane, which is coupled to the generation of ATP during respiration
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Anaerobic respiration
The release of energy from substrates, such as glucose, in the absence of oxygen
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Respiratory substrate
An organic substance that can be used for respiration
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Mole
The gram molecular mass of a substance. E.g 180g of glucose is 1mol of glucose.
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Card 2

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Biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones

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Anabolic reactions

Card 3

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Larger molecules are hydrolysed to produced smaller molecules

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Card 4

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Loss of electrons

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Card 5

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Gain of electrons

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