MODULE 3: How effectively did Hitler consolidate Nazi authority 1933-45? PART 3

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How was Big Business affected by Nazis economic policies?
+demand for more food (major landowners) +labour movement ended & demands to rearm (industrialists) +business owners & Nazi state realised they both needed each other -some industrialists were critical of government control
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How was Mittelstand affected by Nazis economic policies?
+Law to Protect Retail Trade in 1933 (special taxes on large stores) -bankruptcy due to large business competition -decline in number of independent artisans -cartelisation -couldn't compete when prices became fixed
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What is Mittelstand?
•small farmers or traders (middle class)
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How was the Third Reich and Workers affected by Nazis economic policies?
+increased employment +Christmas bonuses/ job perks +varied living standards +Community idea -frozen wages -reduced workers incomes through compulsory membership payment to DAF -lost freedom & political power -hourly wages increased by only 1%
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What were Nazi economic aims?
•Recovery 1933-6 •Rearmament 1936-9 •War- Blitzkrieg 1939-41 •War 1942-45
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Who were the important individuals and what were the key measures of 'Recovery 1933-6'?
•Shacht (President of the Reichsbank 1933 & Economics Minister 1934) •deficit financing- government spends more money than it receives to expand the economy •Mefo Bills- credit notes to delay real payments
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Who were the important individuals and what were the key measures of 'Rearmament 1936-9'?
•Goering •Hitler •The Office of the Four Year Plan •Autarky- attempt to produce own commodities
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Who were the important individuals and what were the key measures of 'War- Blitzkrieg 1939-41'?
•Hitler •Allies •September 1939: Hitler invaded Poland & the Allies declared War
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Who were the important individuals and what were the key measures of 'War 1942-45'?
•Speer •power shifted from Goering to Todt to Speer •Central Planning Board to increase output
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What were the successes of 'Recovery 1933-6'?
•created jobs •controlled wages & prices to prevent inflation •reparations repayments ended •debt repayments were suspended •stimulate consumer demand through tax concessions, special grants, increased public expenditure & investment
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What were the successes of 'Rearmament 1936-9'?
+priority given to rearmaments +emphasis was placed on development of raw materials & machinery production +regulations were placed throughout the economy
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What were the successes of 'War- Blitzkrieg 1939-41'?
•1938-1939: Germany took over Austria & Czechoslovakia •the Nazis took over the countries they exploited
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What were the successes and failures of 'War 1942-45'?
+in 1942 the economy was organised effectively +Central Planning Board increased output a time when allied bombing was attempting to destroy industry -by 1945
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What were the failures of 'Rearmament 1936-9'?
•Hitler was wary of alienating his people so he focused less on military production ('Guns or Butter') •1939: Germany still depended on foreign imports for 1/3 of its raw materials
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What were the failures of 'War- Blitzkrieg 1939-41'?
•the Allies declared war •Germany was not prepared •major deficiencies in war material •supply problems •unable to replace planes lost in the Battle of Britain •inadequate equipment
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What was the Office of the Four Year Plan?
•1936: Hitler put Goering in charge •aimed to get Germany ready for war in 4 years •priority given to rearmament •self-sufficient in food •autarky in industrial production •emphasis placed on development of raw materials & machinery production
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What were the failures of 'Recovery 1933-6'?
•Trade deficit- Germany was importing than it was exporting
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What was the New Plan?
•devised by Schacht •reduce imports •reduce unemployment •channel gov into a wide range of industries •make trade agreements with other nations
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Was Nazi economy economically driven?
•economy became managed during the Third Reich for practical rather than ideological reasons •reducing unemployment, autarky & rearmament required government intervention •outbreak & demands of war changed demands on economy & priorities of the Nazis
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What are arguments for Nazi economic policy being successful?
•restored full employment •built up Germany's economic strength •recovered from depression
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What are arguments for Nazi economic policy not being successful?
•Autarky was not achieved •rearmament was disorganised & wasteful until Speer •rearmament ultimately failed •Hitler was forced to abandon some of his promises under Volksgemeinschaft
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What are some historian's views on why Hitler and the Nazis rose to power?
•Salmon: 'result of a miscalculation by conservative politicians & the military' •Holtfrerich: 'linked to the Great Depression' •Feuchtwanger: 'personality of the Fuhrer'- 'demagogic gifts & political instinct' •Laffan: 'enemies' weakness and failure
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What was Fischer's view as to why Hitler and the Nazis rose to power?
•'special conditions within a sixty-year span' •'charismatic genius' •'catastrophic economic circumstances •'Germany's unstable political institutions & parties' •myopia of Hindenburg & his conservative clique'
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What were unemployment levels in 1939 compared to 1936 and 1933?
•1933: 6 million •1936:2.5 million 1933: 6 million
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Which policies were introduced that caused the unemployment figures to drop?
•women weren't included in statistics •simple choice: do work or be 'work-shy' and put in camp •Jews lost citizenship n 1935 •conscription was brought in
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What methods were used to tackle unemployment?
•public work schemes e.g. autobahn building, irrigation ditch digging, planting new forests •National Labour Service •armed forces expanded •militarisation programme: jobs in manufacturing
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What 'protected' those in work?
•German Labour Front •led by Robert Ley •took role of banned trade unions
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What did the German Labour Front do for workers?
•workers couldn't be sacked on spot (but couldn't leave job without gov permission) •increased number of hours worked (60 to 72) •strikes were outlawed •average factory worker earned 10 times more than those on dole money
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What took care of the the leisure time of workers?
•Kraft durch Freude •state provided activities (e.g. concerts, hikes, sports, exhibitions) •cheap holidays won support •scheme to be able to afford a car (Volkswagen People's Car)
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Who was the Minister of the Economy and what did he introduce?
•Hjalmar Schact •the "New Plan'
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What other policies of the Nazis had economic implications?
•Lebensraum •German troops reoccupied Ruhr Valley & Rhineland •Anschluss (merger with Austria): raw materials •Cessation of parts of Czechoslovakia: raw materials •invasion of Poland: cheap labour, raw materials •Anti-Semitism: revenue & resources
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What are arguments FOR Hitler being successful in reducing unemployment?
•currency was stable •investment rose •unemployment fell •manufacturing base was established & functioning relatively effectively
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What are arguments AGAINST Hitler being successful in reducing unemployment?
•rates of pay weren't higher in 1939 than in 1928 •workers' rights diminished •hours worked rose •consumer goods were rare
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What does EFICS stand for?
•Employment •Farming •Industry •Conditions •Strength through Joy
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What is a summary of the E of EFICS?
•'Employment' •June 1933- law to reduce unemployment •National Labour Service (RAD)- public works •gov spending rose (1932-38: 5-30 billion) •unemployment fell •built up armed force •soldiers needed equipment; jobs in production •
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What is a summary of the F of EFICS?
•'Farming' •1933 Farm Law: farmers were assured of sales & given subsidies •Reich Food Estate: organised farmers & strict rules
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What is a summary of the I of EFICS?
•'Industry' •1934 New Plan: stopped imports, subsidies industry- Autarky •production rose (e.g. oil, steel, coal & explosives)
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What is a summary of the C of EFICS?
•'Conditions' •Nazis tried to make people proud •trade unions were banned •all workers had to join German Labour Front (lost right to to strike for better pay & conditions) •wages fell •
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What is a summary of the S of EFICS?
•'Strength through Joy' (KdF) movement •workers were offered cut-price holidays, theatre trips & concerts •gov made sure everyone could get a cheap radio •designed the Volkswagen •1933-38 Berlin: sponsored 134,000 events
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+Law to Protect Retail Trade in 1933 (special taxes on large stores) -bankruptcy due to large business competition -decline in number of independent artisans -cartelisation -couldn't compete when prices became fixed

Card 3

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Card 4

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